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1. Lincoln’s

Lincoln’s apparently radical changeof mind about his war power to emancipate slaves was caused by the escalatingscope of the war, which convinced him that any measure to weaken the Confederacyand strengthen the Union war effort was justifiable as a military necessity.


2. Father

Ever since I remembered, father wokeup at five thirty every morning, made breakfast for us all and read newspaper.After that he would go to work. He worked as a writer. It was a long timebefore I realize he did this for a living.


3. Blue

While blue is one of the most popularcolours, it is one of the least appetizing. Blue food is rare in nature. Foodresearchers say that when humans searched for food, they learned to avoid toxicor spoiled objects, which were often blue, black, or purple. When food dyedblue is served to study subjects, they lose appetite.


4. Funds

At the beginning of each fiscal yearfunds are allocated to each State account in accordance with the University'sfinancial plan. Funds are allocated to each account by object of expenditure.Account managers are responsible for ensuring that adequate funds are availablein the appropriate object before initiating transactions to use the funds.


5. Pluto

Pluto lost its official status as aplanet yesterday, when the International Astronomical Union downsized the solarsystem from nine to eight planets. Although there had been passionate debate atthe IAU General Assembly Meeting in Prague about the definition of a planet -and whether Pluto met the specifications - the audience greeted the decision toexclude it with applause.



Intellectual, anthropology, undreamt,inaugurating, Antarctic


Repeat sentence

1. The aesthetic implications of this study have not yet been fully explored/noticed.

2. The topic next week on colonial will be the nuclear disarmament.

3. The first person inspace was from the Soviet Union.

4. In this library, reserved collection books can be borrowed for up to three hours.

5. More muscles are used in swimming than anyother sport.

6. Unfortunately, the two most interestingeconomic selections clash on my timetable.

7. Establishing and retaining intellectual leadership clearly takes strong management skills.


Describe Image:







4.标题为:TheUnited Arab Emirates’ Flag and Jordan’s Flag






Summarize Written Text:

1. Language

Let us begin by asking why the conviction that our languageis decaying is so much more widespread than the belief that it is progressing.In an intellectual climate where the notion of the survival of the fittest isat least as strong as the belief in inevitable decay, it is strange that somany people are convinced of the decline in the quality of English, a languagewhich is now spoken by an estimated half billion people – a possiblehundredfold increase in the number of speakers during the past millennium.One’s first reaction is to wonder whether the members of the anti-slovenlinessbrigade, as we may call them, are subconsciously reacting to the fast-movingworld we live in, and consequently resenting change in any area of life. Tosome extent this is likely to be true. A feeling that ‘things aren’t what theyused to be’ and an attempt to preserve life unchanged seem to be naturalreactions to insecurity, symptoms of growing old. Every generation inevitablybelieves that the clothes, manners and speech of the following one havedeteriorated. We would therefore expect to find a respect for conservativelanguage in every century and every culture and, in literate societies, areverence for the language of the ‘best authors’ of the past. Some"moments" seem more important in hindsight than they were at the time.David Day, for example, looks at John Curtin's famous "Australia looks toAmerica" statement of December 1941, a moment remembered as embodying afundamental shift in Australia's strategic alliance away from Britain towardsthe US. As Day points out, the shift to the US as our primary ally was a long,drawn-out process which occurred over half a century. There are many otherimportant events which our contributors examine - the campaign to save theFranklin River; the landings at Gallipoli, the discovery of gold in 185 1, thedisastrous Premiers' Plan designed to cope with the Great Depression, to namejust a few. Taken together, our contributors show that narrative approaches toAustralian history are not as simple as might be imagined. There is of coursethe issue of what should be included and what should not be - what, after all,makes a moment or an event sufficiently important to be included in an officialnarrative? Just as importantly, the moments and events that are included innarrative histories are open to multiple interpretations. We hope thiscollection will provide an important reminder to those wanting to impose auniversal history curriculum for our school children, and indeed a lesson toall Australians wishing to understand their nation's past; History is neversimple or straight forward, and it always resists attempts to make it so.


2. Water

Water is at the core of sustainable development. Water resources, andthe range of services they provide, underpin poverty reduction, economic growthand environmental sustainability. From food and energy security to human andenvironmental health, water contributes to improvements in social well- beingand inclusive growth, affecting the livelihoods of billions


In a sustainable world that is achievable in the near future, waterand related resources are managed in support of human well-being and ecosystemintegrity in a robust economy. Sufficient and safe water is made available tomeet every person’s basic needs, with healthy lifestyles and behaviors easilyupheld through reliable and affordable water supply and sanitation services, inturn supported by equitably extended and efficiently managed infrastructure.Water resources management, infrastructure and service delivery are sustainablyfinanced. Water is duly valued in all its forms, with wastewater treated as aresource that avails energy, nutrients and freshwater for reuse. Humansettlements develop in harmony with the natural water cycle and the ecosystemsthat support it, with measures in place that reduce vulnerability and improveresilience to water-related disasters. Integrated approaches to water resourcesdevelopment, management and use and to human rights are the norm. Water isgoverned in a participatory way that draws on the full potential of women andmen as professionals and citizens, guided by a number of able and knowledgeableorganizations, within a just and transparent institutional framework.


3. Tiny Tree Frog in Amber

MEXICO CITY A miner in the state of Chiapas found a tiny tree frogthat has been preserved in amber for 25 million years, a researcher said. Ifauthenticated, the preserved frog would be the first of its kind found inMexico, according to David Grimaldi, a biologist and curator at the AmericanMuseum of Natural History, who was not involved in the find.


The chunk of amber containing the frog, less than half an inch long,was uncovered by a miner in Mexicos southern Chiapas state in 2005 and wasbought by a private collector, who loaned it to scientists for study. A fewother preserved frogs have been found in chunks of amber a stone formed byancient tree sap mostly in the Dominican Republic. Like those, the frog foundin Chiapas appears to be of the genus Craugastor, whose descendants stillinhabit the region, said biologist Gerardo Carbot of the Chiapas NaturalHistory and Ecology Institute. Carbot announced the discovery this week.


The scientist said the frog lived about 25 million years ago, based onthe geological strata where the amber was found. Carbot would like to extract asample from the frogs remains in hopes of finding DNA that could identify theparticular species, but doubts the owner would let him drill into the stone.

4. Over qualified workers

If your recruiting efforts attract job applicants withtoo much experience a near certainty in this weak labour market you shouldconsider a response that runs counter to most hiring managers MO: Don't rejectthose applicants out of hand.


Instead, take a closer look. New research shows thatoverqualified workers tend to perform better than other employees, and theydon't quit any sooner. Furthermore, a simple managerial tactic empowerment canmitigate any dissatisfaction they may feel.


The prejudice against too-good employees is pervasive.Companies tend to prefer an applicant who is a perfect fit over someone whobrings more intelligence, education, or experience than needed. On the surface,this bias makes sense: Studies have consistently shown that employees whoconsider themselves overqualified exhibit higher levels of discontent. Forexample, over-qualification correlated well with job dissatisfaction in a 2008study of 156 call-centre reps by Israeli researchers Saul Fine and Baruch Nevo.And unlike discrimination based on age or gender, declining to hireoverqualified workers is perfectly legal.


But even before the economic downturn, a surplus ofoverqualified candidates was a global problem, particularly in developingeconomies, where rising education levels are giving workers more skills thanare needed to supply the growing service sectors. If managers can get beyondthe conventional wisdom, the growing pool of too-good applicants is a greatopportunity. Berrin Erdogan and Talya N. Bauer of Portland State University inOregon found that overqualified workers' feelings of dissatisfaction can bedissipated by giving them autonomy in decision making. At stores whereemployees didn't feel empowered, over-educated workers expressed greater dissatisfactionthan their colleagues did and were more likely to state an intention to quit.But that difference vanished where self-reported autonomy was high.



Why and to what extent should parents control their children’s TV watching?There is certainly nothing inherently wrong with TV. The problem is how much television a child watchesand what effect it has on his life. Research has shown that asthe amount of time spent watching TV goes up, the amount of time devoted notonly to homework and study but other important aspects of life such as socialdevelopment and physical activities decreases.


Television is bound to have it tremendous impact on a child,both in terms of how many hours a week he watches TV and of what he sees. When a parent is concerned about theeffects of television, he should consider a number of things: what TV offersthe child in terms of information and knowledge, how many hours a week ayoungster his age should watch television, the impact of violence and sex, andthe influence of commercials.


What about the family as a whole? Is the TV set acentral piece of furniture in your home! Is it flicked on the moment someoneenters the empty house? Is it on during the daytime? Is it part of thebackground noise of your family life? Do you demonstrate by your own viewingthat television should be watched selectively?



Parentsshouldcontroltheir children’s TV watching because how much television a child watchesand what effect it has on his life, and when a parent is concerned about theeffects of television, he should consider a number of things: what TV offersthe child in terms of information and knowledge, how many hours a week ayoungster his age should watch television, theimpact of violence andsex, and the influence of commercials.



Write Essay:

1. Large shopping malls are replacing small shops. What is your opinion about this?Discuss with appropriate examples.

2. Design of buildings have positive or negativeimpact on people’s life and work?

3. Whichone is better, textbook library (updating textbook) or new digital material inuniversity. The role of a library in keeping books is obsolete. So universities should use digital media. What is your opinion? Discuss advantages and disadvantages.

4. Itis important to maintain a right balance of your work and other respects ofone’s life such as family and leisure sport. What is your opinion about this?Discuss with appropriate examples.

5. There has been a discussion of replacing the national happiness index with economic growth tomeasure the success of a country, please give reasons why this is good andprovide measures.





Summarise Spoken Text:

1.Child Depression

• In the past, children rarely have depression.

• Research showed that there is a dramatic increase inchild depression, which changes

the way people think about child depression.

• Now, no one doubt about child depression.

• The study shows children with depression behave differently and respond differently to

medical treatment.



• Survey on happiness with large samples from regions,countries and even worldwide.

• Consistent patterns including basic things like income,marital and employment status is one large factor that makes people happy. Thisis consistent across all countries and states, and is a signal that our needs havebeen satisfied.

• Other factors that constitutes a person’s happiness are environment, quality of life and

natural instinct.


3. Governmentsuse tricks to cover the truth

• People should be informed; some governments use tricksto cover the truth.

• Although western countries are democratic countries, citizens are not well informed.

• People are often deliberately hidden from the truth.

• Government policies are often interpreted wrong and misleading. They use all the tricks to hide the mistakes that have taken inplace to mislead people.



Write From Dictation:

1. I thought we would meet in the small meeting room.

2. Student concession cards could be obtained by completing an application form.

3. The undergraduates may pursue specific interest in specific program. 

4. Clinical placement for(in) nursing prepares (will prepare) students for professional practice.

5. The theme of the instrumental worke xhibits more of a demure, compositional style.

6. The nation achieved the/its prosperity byopening its ports for trade. 

7. Most (of the) students have not yetconsidered this issue (before).

8. The chemistry building is located at theentrance of/to the campus.

9. They seem to reach the same explanation ofthe problems.

10. While the reconciliation is desirable, the basic underlying issues should/must beaddressed first. 

11. You can contact all your tutors byemail.

12. Participants initially select from a range offoundation subjects.

13. Those seeking formal extension should contact their facilities for more information.

14. The placement test of mathematics and science is open to every semester.



Fill in the Blanks:

1. Healthcare

In the fast-changing word of modernhealthcare, the job of a doctor is more and more like the job of chiefexecutive. The people who run hospitals and physicianspractices don’t just needto know medicine. They must also be able to balance budgets,motivates a large and diverse staff andmake difficult marketing and legaldecisions.


2. Casual Observer

The casual observer doesnot necessarily recognize the skill in how ateacher, for instance, responds to a thoughtful question from a normally quietstudent and how that may be very different from the ‘standard response’ to acommonly inquisitive or talkative student.Expert teachers are aware of what they are doing; they monitor and adjust theirteaching behaviours to bring out thebest in theirstudents.


3. Enigma

If the voice of an animal is not heard as message but as art, interesting things start to happen: Natureis no longer an alien enigma, but somethingimmediately beautiful, an exuberant opus with space forus to join in. bird melodies have always been called songs for a reason.


Reorder Paragraphs


• A requirement of Humanities 104 is to write a persuasivepaper on a topic of your choice.

• The topic you choose should be supported by a range ofsources.

• The source should be cited under APA guidelines, andthe final draft should be written in APA styles.

• The final draft is due one week before the final exam.



• SEPAHUA, a ramshackle town on the edge of Peru’s Amazonjungle, nestles in a

pocket on the map where a river of the same name flowsinto the Urubamba.

• That pocket denotes a tiny patch of legally loggableland sandwiched between four natural reserves, all rich in mahogany andaccessible from the town. “Boundaries are on maps,” says a local logger, “mapsare only in Lima,” the capital.

• In 2001 the government, egged on by WWF, a green group,tried to regulate logging in the relatively small part of the Peruvian Amazonwhere this is allowed.

• It abolished the previous system of annual control.

• Instead, it auctioned 40-year concessions to areasruled off on a map, with the right to

log 5% of the area each year. The aim was to encouragestrict management plans and sustainable extraction.














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