A young man from a small provincial town, a man without independent wealth, without powerful family connections and without a university education, moves to London in the late 1580's, and in a remarkably short time, became the greatest playwright. Not of his age alone but of all time. How is an achievement of this magnitude to be explained? How did Shakespeare become Shakespeare?
While blue is one of the most popular colours, it is one of the least appetizing. Blue food is rare in nature. Food researchers say that when humans searched for food, they learned to avoid toxic or spoiled objects, which were often blue, black, or purple. When food dyed blue is served to study subjects, they lose appetite.
3. Carbon Dioxide Emissions
When countries assess their annual carbon dioxide emissions, they count up their cars and power stations, but bush fires are not included presumably because they are deemed to be events beyond human control. In Australia, Victoria alone sees several hundred thousand hectares burn each year in both 2004 and the present summer, the figure has been over 1 million hectares.
Akimbo, this must be one of the odder-looking words in the language. It puzzles us in part because it doesn't seem to have any relatives. What's more, it is now virtually a fossil word, until recently almost invariably found in 'arms Akimbo', a posture in which a person stands with hands on hips and elbows sharply bent outward, one that signals impatience, hostility, and contempt.
1. People with an active lifestyle are less likely to die early or to have a major illness.
2. There will be ample opportunities to ask questions about the presentation.
3. The real reason for world’s hunger is not the lack of food, but poverty.
4. If you forget your student number, please contact Jenny Bronze.
5. I need a milk and sugar in my coffee.
6. When demand for the course rose, university authorities took on additional academic.
7. Our university has strong partnerships with industry as well as collaborative relationships with government bodies.
8. The professor plans to discuss these issues this evening.
9. He was constantly looking for ways to bring industry and agriculture together.
10. Students will not be given credits for assignment submitted after the due date.
11. The tutor is there for help, so do ask if you don’t understand anything.
12. Interpreters are not readily available in this department.
13. The real reason for world’s hunger is not the lack of food, but poverty.
14. The university celebrated the Earth Day by planting trees.
15. The glass is not the real solid, because it doesn’t have crystal structure.
16. Residents hall is closed prior to the academic building closing time in the semester.
17. Sport is the cause of traumatic brain injuries in the United States.
1. Australian Export
2. Green Revolution: Rice
3. Government Blogging
4. Bomb calorimeter
Summarize Written Text:
1. Midday napping (真实考题可能没有这么长)
A large new study has found that people who regularly took a siesta were significantly less likely to die of heart disease.
"Taking a nap could turn out to be an important weapon in the fight against coronary mortality," said Dimitrios Trichopoulos of the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston, who led the study published yesterday in the Archives of Internal Medicine.
The study of more than 23,000 Greek adults -- the biggest and best examination of the subject to date -- found that those who regularly took a midday siesta were more than 30 percent less likely to die of heart disease. Other experts said the results are intriguing. Heart disease kills more than 650,000 Americans each year, making it the nation's No. 1 cause of death.
"It's interesting. A little siesta, a little snooze may be beneficial," said Gerald Fletcher, a cardiologist at the Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Fla., speaking on behalf of the American Heart Association. "It's simple, but it has a lot of promise. “While more research is needed to confirm and explore the findings, there are several ways napping could reduce the risk of heart attacks, experts said. “Napping may help deal with the stress of daily living," said Michael Twery, who directs the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute's National Center on Sleep Disorders Research. "Another possibility is that it is part of the normal biological rhythm of daily living. The biological clock that drives sleep and wakefulness has two cycles each day, and one of them dips usually in the early afternoon. It's possible that not engaging in napping for some people might disrupt these processes."
Researchers have long known that countries such as Greece, Italy and Spain, where people commonly take siestas, have lower rates of heart disease than would be expected. But previous studies that attempted to study the relationship between naps and heart disease have produced mixed results. The new study is first to try to fully account for factors that might confuse the findings, such as physical activity, diet and other illnesses. "This study has a number of advantages," Trichopoulos said.
He and colleagues at the University of Athens examined 23,681 Greek men and women ages 20 to 86 who had no history of heart disease or any other serious health problem when they enrolled in the study between 1994 and 1999. The researchers asked the participants whether they took midday naps and, if so, how often and for how long. They also asked detailed questions about their health and lifestyles, such as whether they had any illnesses that might make them sleep more, how much exercise they got and what they ate.
After an average of more than six years of follow-up, 792 of the study subjects died, including 133 who died of heart disease. Of that group, 94 were nappers. After the researchers accounted for factors that could confuse the issue, they found that those who took naps frequently were 34 percent less likely to die of heart disease than those who did not. The biggest nappers -- 79 people who took a siesta for 30 minutes or more at least three times a week -- had a 37 percent lower risk.
Naps appeared to offer the most protection to working men: Those who took midday siestas either occasionally or systematically had a 64 percent lower risk of death from heart disease. Non-working men had a 36 percent reduction in risk. A similar analysis could not be done in women because too few died of heart disease.
Those who regularly took a midday siesta were more than 30 percent less likely to die of heart disease, and more research is needed to confirm and explore the findings, there are several ways napping could reduce the risk of heart attacks, and previous studies that attempted to study the relationship between naps and heart disease have produced mixed results, and naps appeared to offer the most protection to working men. (71words)
2. Parents’ own birth order
Parents' own birth order can become an issue when dynamics in the family they are raising replicate the family in which they were raised. Agati notes common examples, such as a firstborn parent getting into "raging battles" with a firstborn child. "Both are used to getting the last word. Each has to be right. But the parent has to be the grown-up and step out of that battle," he advises.
When youngest children become parents, Agati cautions that because they "may not have had high expectations placed on them, they in turn may not see their kids for their abilities."But he also notes that since youngest children tend to be more social, "youngest parents can be helpful to their firstborn, who may have a harder time with social situations. These parents can help their eldest kids loosen up and not be so hard on themselves.
Mom Susan Ritz says her own birth order didn't seem to affect her parenting until the youngest of her three children, Julie, was born. Julie was nine years younger than Ritz's oldest, Joshua, mirroring the age difference between Susan and her own older brother. "I would see Joshua do to Julie what my brother did to me," she says of the taunting and teasing by a much older sibling.
"I had to try not to always take Julie's side." Biases can surface no matter what your own birth position was, as Lori Silverstone points out. "As a middle myself, I can be harder on my older daughter. I recall my older sister hitting me," she says of her reactions to her daughters' tussles.
Parents' own birth order can become an issue when dynamics in the family they are raising replicate the family in which they were raised, and when youngest children become parents, they may not have had high expectations placed on them, and youngest children tend to be more social, and biases can surface no matter what your own birth position was, as Lori Silverstone points out. (65words)
3. Australian educational quality and equity
When Australians engage in debate about educational quality or equity, they often seem to accept that a country cannot achieve both at the same time. The lecture will present compelling international evidence that there are countries which do, though Australia is not among them.
Curriculum reforms intended to improve equity often fail to do so because they increase breadth or differentiation in offerings in a way that increases differences in quality. Further, these differences in quality often reflect differences in students’ social backgrounds because the ‘new’ offerings are typically taken up by relatively disadvantaged students who are not served well them. Evidence from New South Wales will be used to illustrate this point.
The need to improve the quality of education is well accepted across OECD and other countries as they seek to strengthen their human capital to underpin their modern, knowledge economies. Improved equity is also important for this purpose, since the demand for high-level skills is widespread and the opportunities for the low-skilled are diminishing.
Improved equity in education is also important for social cohesion. There are countries in which the education system seems primarily to reproduce existing social arrangements, conferring privilege where it already exists and denying it where it does not. Even in countries where the diagnosis might be less extreme, the capacity of schooling to build social cohesion is often diminished by the way in which schools separate individuals and groups. The lecture will explore ways in which an education system could provide choice, as Australia’s does, while also increasing social capital and helping to increase social cohesion. The perspective will be one of lifelong learning and not just learning during the years of schooling.
A country cannot achieve educational quality or equity at the same time, and curriculum reforms intended to improve equity often fail, and the need to improve the quality of education is well accepted, and improved equity in education is important for social cohesion, and the lecture will explore ways in which an education system could provide choice, as Australia’s does, while also increasing social capital and helping to increase social cohesion. (71 word)
4. IBM Technology
As far as prediction is concerned, remember that the chairman of IBM predicted in the fifties that the world would need a maximum of around half a dozen computers, that the British Department for Education seemed to think in the eighties that we would all need to be able to code in BASIC and that in the nineties Microsoft failed to foresee the rapid growth of the Internet. Who could have predicted that one major effect of the automobile would be to bankrupt small shops across the nation? Could the early developers of the telephone have foreseen its development as a medium for person-to-person communication, rather than as a form of broadcasting medium? We all, including the 'experts', seem to be peculiarly inept at predicting the likely development of our technologies, even as far as the next year. We can, of course, try to extrapolate from experience of previous technologies, as I do below by comparing the technology of the Internet with the development of other information and communication technologies and by examining the earlier development of radio and print. But how justified I might be in doing so remains an open question. You might conceivably find the history of the British and French videotext systems, Prestel and Minitel, instructive. However, I am not entirely convinced that they are very relevant, nor do I know where you can find information about them on-line, so, rather than take up space here, I've briefly described them in a separate article.
We seem to be peculiarly inept at predicting the likely development of our technologies, and we can try to extrapolate from experience of previous technologies, and how justified I might be in doing so remains an open question, and I've briefly described them in a separate article.
5. Cow and grass
The co-evolutionary relationship between cows and grass is one of nature's under-appreciated wonders; it also happens to be the key to understanding just about everything about modern meat.
For the grasses, which have evolved to withstand the grazing of ruminants, the cow maintains and expands their habitat by preventing trees and shrubs from gaining a foothold and hogging the sunlight; the animal also spreads grass seed, plants it with his hooves, and then fertilises it with his manure.
In exchange for these services the grasses offer ruminants a plentiful and exclusive supply of lunch. For cows (like sheep, bison, and other ruminants) have evolved the special ability to convert grass— which single-stomached creatures like us can't digest—into high-quality protein. They can do this because they possess what is surely the most highly evolved digestive organ in nature: the rumen. About the size of a medicine ball, the organ is essentially a forty-five-gallon fermentation tank in which a resident population of bacteria dines on grass.
The co-evolutionary relationship between cows and grass is a wonder, and grasses have evolved to withstand the grazing of ruminants, and cow maintains and expands their habitat, and cows have evolved the special ability to convert grass, and single-stomached creatures like us can't digest into high-quality protein because they possess what is surely the most highly evolved digestive organ in nature: the rumen.
6. Nobel Peace Prize
This year’s Nobel Peace Prize justly rewards the thousands of scientists of the United Nations Climate Change Panel (the IPCC). These scientists are engaged in excellent, painstaking work that establishes exactly what the world should expect from climate change.
The other award winner, former US Vice President Al Gore, has spent much more time telling us what to fear. While the IPCC’s estimates and conclusions are grounded in careful study, Gore doesn’t seem to be similarly restrained.
Gore told the world in his Academy Award-winning movie (recently labeled “one-sided” and containing “scientific errors” by a British judge) to expect 20-foot sea-level rises over this century. He ignores the findings of his Nobel co-winners, the IPCC, who conclude that sea levels will rise between only a half-foot and two feet over this century, with their best expectation being about one foot. That’s similar to what the world experienced over the past 150 years.
Likewise, Gore agonises over the accelerated melting of ice in Greenland and what it means for the planet, but overlooks the IPCC’s conclusion that, if sustained, the current rate of melting would add just three inches to the sea level rise by the end of the century. Gore also takes no notice of research showing that Greenland’s temperatures were higher in 1941 than they are today.
Gore also frets about the future of polar bears. He claims they are drowning as their icy habitat disappears. However, the only scientific study showing any such thing indicates that four polar bears drowned because of a storm.
The politician-turned-movie maker loses sleep over a predicted rise in heat-related deaths. There’s another side of the story that’s inconvenient to mention: rising temperatures will reduce the number of cold spells, which are a much bigger killer than heat. The best study shows that by 2050, heat will claim 400,000 more lives, but 1.8 million fewer will die because of cold. Indeed, according to the first complete survey of the economic effects of climate change for the world, global warming will actually save lives.
This year’s Nobel Peace Prize winner is the former US Vice President Al Gore, and Gore told the world in his Academy Award-winning movie to expect 20-foot sea-level rises over this century, and Gore agonises over the accelerated melting of ice in Greenland, and Gore agonises over the accelerated melting of ice in Greenland, and global warming will actually save lives.
1. It is important to maintain a right balance of your work and other respects of one’s life such as family and leisure sport. What is your opinion about this? Discuss with appropriate examples.
2. Which one is better, Textbook library or new digital material in university. The role of a library in keeping books is obsolete. So universities should use digital media. What is your opinion? Discuss advantages and disadvantages.
3. Governments and international institution are faced with many global problems. What these problems could be? Solution?
4. Government should create better network of public transport available for everyone or build more roads owning population.
5. Parents should be held legally responsible for children’s acts. What is your opinion? Support it with personal examples.
6. Design of buildings have positive or negative impact on people’s life and work?
7. Whether experiential learning (learning by doing) can work well in formal education. Do you agree or disagree?
8. The advanced medical technology expands human’s life. Do you think it is a curse or blessing?
Fill in the Blanks
1. Dairy Farms
A few summers ago I visited two dairy farms, Huls Farm and Gardar Farm, which despite being located thousands of miles apart were still remarkably similar in their strengths and vulnerabilities. Both were by far the largest, most prosperous, most technologically advanced farms in their respective districts. In particular, each was cantered around a magnificent state-of-the-art barn for sheltering and milking cows. Those structures, both neatly divided into opposite-facing rows of cow stalls, dwarfed all other barns in the district. Both farms let their cows graze outdoors in lush pastures during the summer, produced their own hay to harvest in the late summer for feeding the cows through the winter, and increased (gained) their production of summer fodder and winter hay by irrigating their fields.
2. Great Barrier Reef
The ocean floor is home to many unique communities of plants and animals. Most of these marine ecosystems are near the water surface, such as the Great Barrier Reef, a 2,000km long coral formation off the northeaster coast of Australia. Coral reefs, like nearly all complex living communities, depend on solar energy for growth (photosynthesis). The sun’s energy, however, penetrates at most only about 300m below the surface of the water. The relatively shallow penetration of solar energy and the sinking of cold, sub-polar water combine to make most of the deep ocean floor a frigid environment with few life forms.
In 1977, scientists discovered hot springs at a depth of 2.5km, on the Galapagos Rift (spreading ridge) off the coast of Ecuador. This exciting discovery was not really a surprise. Since the early 1970s, scientists had predicted that hot springs (geothermal vents) should be found at the active spreading centres along the mid-oceanic ridges, where magma, at temperatures over 1,000°C, presumably was being erupted to form new oceanic crust. More exciting, because it was totallyunexpected, was the discovery of abundant and unusual sea life – giant tube worms, huge clams, and mussels – that thrivedaround the hot springs.
1. The CEO of Wal-Mart
• Wal-Mart CEO found out that consumers spent all their money
• This trend ... negative effect ... this trend
• The damage caused by ... confirm…serious.
• Much more ... Problem is manageable.
2. A Pilot Delivering Mails
• After finishing first in his pilot training class, Lindbergh took his first job as the chief pilot of an airmail route operated by Robertson Aircraft Co. of Lambert Field in St.Louis, Missouri.
• He flew the mail in a de Havilland DH-4 biplane to Springfield, Illinois, Peoria and Chicago.
• During his tenure on the mail route, he was renowned for delivering the mail under any circumstances。
• After a crash, he even salvaged bags of mail from his burning aircraft and immediately phoned Alexander Varney, Peoria's airport manager, to advise him to send a truck.
Summarise Spoken Text:
1. An experiment about female body fat
• An experiment on female body fat change.
• This lecture is mainly about an experiment conducted by Canadian researchers on body fat changes.
• 31 obese women volunteered in the program and was asked not to change their current diet and exercise regularly for 6 months.
• After 6 months, some people lost weight and some people gained weight, others did not change.
• Two explanations:
People ate a lot more or cheated.
Consciously or subconsciously exercised less. (unsure?)
• The text is about the benefits of laughing, especially in adversity.
• People realised the importance of laughing a long time ago and there are different understandings about humour in different regions. (Iran, Egypt, Soviet)
• There were war jokes about the Berlin Wall spreading among east regions for 30 years during the second World War, and this eased the harm of the war.
• Moreover, as humour, laughing can help people get through bleak and boring time.
• Laugh can be used as a great therapy. As a therapy, laughing can effectively improve people’s self-respect and identity.
3. Amory Lovins (Mr Green)
• A man named Amory. Nobody knows him in the classroom, He has a consulting company and lives in a house built on a mountain.
• He spent 30 years thinking about ways to save energy and solved problems with technologies that already existed.
• People regarded him as genius. He has an unusual character with a wide range of knowledge, but he's not an academic.
• A female writer wrote a book about him named Mr. Green.
4. A commercial advertisement
• Consumers are very smart and can determine the value of the product. It only takes a few seconds to make a decision.
• Brand image is important as consumers are willing to pay more for quality goods.
• Fundamental engineering contradictions arise as consumers ask for soft, strong, durable products.
• The softest product is however, very strong.
• ‘Tide’ - You don’t want it to separated before you put it in the washing machine.
5. Misuse of Drugs
• Drugs should be enclosed and stored properly to avoid children accidentally accessing the drugs as it is very dangerous to do so.
• People nowadays take drugs for the wrong reason. E.g. Some drugs used for bacterial infections cannot be used for virus infections.
• The misuse of drugs is sometimes caused by an incorrect prescription which may cause allergic reactions.
• If drugs are taken at wrong dosages, under wrong prescriptions, drug resistance may develop. Recommendations: physicians should give correct prescriptions, physicians should stress the importance of taking the right drugs to the patients. E.g. Patients should finish the whole course of their antibiotics.
6. Vitamin D
• Vitamin D is, in fact, a kind of hormone which can be ingested from dietary.
• It is not necessary to ingest Vitamin D via food only if it can be sufficiently absorbed from sunshine.
• However, people have been migrating from the equator to other places where they need to put clothes on.
• Therefore, more Vitamin D via food is needed now as people’s skin are less exposed to sunshine.
7. Human Right in UK
• This lecture mainly discussed the free human rights in UK.
• During the second world war, UK was the first country that mentioned free rights among other countries.
• It set up the baseline and minimum standards.
• The positive aspects of human rights include right to marry and election. The negative aspects include sex and religion.
• Other aspects that UK government mentioned include voting, election, tourism and trading.
8. Big Bang Theory
• Studying the cosmology of the universe is amazing.
• Big bang happened around ten to twenty billion years ago.
• A recently detailed measure indicates that big bang happened around 13.8 billion years ago, instead of 13 or 14 billion years.
• The universe has been on a continuous changing status ever since. Even when the universe started is known, we still need to understand how it developed.
• Big bang believed that all distant galaxies and clusters are receding away from our vantage point with an apparent velocity proportional to their distance.
Write From Dictation:
1. Several candidates will be qualified as the greatest scientists in all time.
2. The economy now is showing the first sign of recovery.
3. The placement test of mathematics and statistics is offered every semester.
4. Climate change is now an acceptable phenomenon among reputable scientists.
5. Observers waited nervously and bated their breath for the concert.
6. Free campus tours run daily during summer for prospective students.
7. Tribes vibe/worked with each other to build up monolithic statues.
8. Native speakers are exempt from their language tests in their own languages.
9. Those seeking for formal extension should contact their faculty for further information.
10. She used to be the editor of the student newspaper.
11. While reconciliation is desirable, basic underlying issues must first be addressed.
12. The qualification will be assessed by using a conference criterion approach.
13. You can contact all your tutors by email.
14. The business policy seminar includes an internship with a local firm.
15. Animals raised in captivity behave differently than their wild counterparts.
16. The massive accumulation of data was converted to a communicable argument.