At the beginning of each fiscal year funds are allocated to each State account in
accordance with the University's financial plan. Funds are allocated to each account by object of expenditure. Account managers are responsible for ensuring that adequate funds are available in the appropriate object before initiating transactions to use the funds.
The uniquely scented flavor of vanilla is second only to chocolate in popularity on the world’s palate. It’s also the second most expensive spice after saffron. But highly labor intensive cultivation methods and the plant’s temperamental life cycle and propagation mean production on a global scale is struggling to keep up with the increasing demand for the product.
Although it hails from a remote region of the western Himalayas, this plant now looks entirely at home on the banks of English rivers. Brought to the UK in 1839, it quickly escaped from Victorian gardens and colonized river banks and damp woodlands. Now it is spreading across Europe, New Zealand, Canada and the US.
Akimbo, this must be one of the odder-looking words in the language. It puzzles us in part because it doesn't seem to have any relatives. What's more, it is now virtually a fossil word, until recently almost invariably found in 'arms Akimbo', a posture in which a person stands with hands on hips and elbows sharply bent outward, one that signals impatience, hostility, and contempt.
5. Carbon Dioxide Emissions
When countries assess their annual carbon dioxide emissions, they count up their cars and power stations, but bush fires are not included presumably because they are deemed to be events beyond human control. In Australia, Victoria alone sees several hundred thousand hectares burn each year in both 2004 and the present summer, the figure has been over 1 million hectares.
1. I used to have a cup of coffee with one sugar.
2. The result of study will be published next Monday.
3. Student loans are available for international students.
4. Number the beakers and put them away until tomorrow.
5. Newspapers around the world are reporting the stories of the president.
6. In consultation with your supervisor, your thesis is approved by the faulty committee.
7. The clear evidence between brain events and behavioral events are always fascinating.
8. The first person in space was from Soviet Union.
9. There is no entrance fee for tonight’s lecture.
10. Residents hall is closed prior to the academic building closing time in the semester.
11. Sport is the cause of traumatic brain injuries in the United States.
12. Try to explain how your ideas are linked so that there is a logical flow.
13. The books in the library can be borrowed for up to three hours.
14. The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy.
1. Language Disorder
3. Australian Export
4. Use visual narratives to draw/write
Summarize Written Text
1. Cow and grass
The co-evolutionary relationship between cows and grass is one of nature's under-appreciated wonders; it also happens to be the key to understanding just about everything about modern meat.
For the grasses, which have evolved to withstand the grazing of ruminants, the cow maintains and expands their habitat by preventing trees and shrubs from gaining a foothold and hogging the sunlight; the animal also spreads grass seed, plants it with his hooves, and then fertilises it with his manure.
In exchange for these services the grasses offer ruminants a plentiful and exclusive supply of lunch. For cows (like sheep, bison, and other ruminants) have evolved the special ability to convert grass— which single-stomached creatures like us can't digest—into high-quality protein. They can do this because they possess what is surely the most highly evolved digestive organ in nature: the rumen. About the size of a medicine ball, the organ is essentially a forty-five-gallon fermentation tank in which a resident population of bacteria dines on grass.
The co-evolutionary relationship between cows and grass is a wonder, and grasses have evolved to withstand the grazing of ruminants, and cow maintains and expands their habitat, and cows have evolved the special ability to convert grass, and single-stomached creatures like us can't digest into high-quality protein because they possess what is surely the most highly evolved digestive organ in nature: the rumen.
2. Parents’ own birth order
Parents' own birth order can become an issue when dynamics in the family they are raising replicate the family in which they were raised. Agati notes common examples, such as a firstborn parent getting into "raging battles" with a firstborn child. "Both are used to getting the last word. Each has to be right. But the parent has to be the grown-up and step out of that battle," he advises.
When youngest children become parents, Agati cautions that because they "may not have had high expectations placed on them, they in turn may not see their kids for their abilities. “But he also notes that since youngest children tend to be more social, "youngest parents can be helpful to their firstborn, who may have a harder time with social situations. These parents can help their eldest kids loosen up and not be so hard on themselves.
Mom Susan Ritz says her own birth order didn't seem to affect her parenting until the youngest of her three children, Julie, was born. Julie was nine years younger than Ritz's oldest, Joshua, mirroring the age difference between Susan and her own older brother. "I would see Joshua do to Julie what my brother did to me," she says of the taunting and teasing by a much older sibling.
"I had to try not to always take Julie's side." Biases can surface no matter what your own birth position was, as Lori Silverstone points out. "As a middle myself, I can be harder on my older daughter. I recall my older sister hitting me," she says of her reactions to her daughters' tussles.
Parents' own birth order can become an issue when dynamics in the family they are raising replicate the family in which they were raised, and when youngest children become parents, they may not have had high expectations placed on them, and youngest children tend to be more social, and biases can surface no matter what your own birth position was, as Lori Silverstone points out. (65words)
3. Labor comparative advantage
To better understand comparative advantage, consider the current situation: Just as is the case for their counterparts in the United States, engineers and technicians in India have the capacity to provide both computer programming and to create innovative new technologies. Indian programmers and high-tech engineers earn one -fifth of what their counterparts earn in the United States. Consequently, India is able to do both jobs at a lower dollar cost than in the United States: India has an absolute advantage in both. In other words, it can produce a unit of programming for fewer dollars than in the United States, and it can also produce a unit of technology innovation for fewer dollars. Does that mean that the United States will lose not only programming jobs but technology-innovation jobs too? Does tat mean that our standard of living will fall if the United States and India engage in international trade?
Economist David Ricardo would have answered no to both questions-as do your authors today. While India may have an absolute advantage in both activities, that fact is irrelevant in determining what india or the United States will produce. India has comparative advantage in doing programming in part because such activity requires little capital. The flip side is that the United States has a comparative advantage in technology innovation partly because it is relatively easy to obtain capital in this country to undertake such long-run projects. The result is that Indian programmers will do more and more of what U.S programmers have been doing in the past. In contrast, American firms will shift to more and more innovation; India will specialise in programming. The business people in each country will specialise in those activities in which they have a comparative advantage. As in the past, the U.S economy will continue to concentrate on what are called the ‘most best’ activities.
India has an absolute advantage in both programming and innovation, and such activity requires little capital, and the United States has a comparative advantage in technology innovation partly because it is relatively easy to obtain capital. (36words)
4. Beauty Contest
Since Australians Jennifer Hawkins and Lauryn Eagle were crowned Miss Universe and Miss Teen International respectively, there has been a dramatic increase in interest in beauty pageants in this country. These wins have also sparked a debate as to whether beauty pageants are just harmless reminders of old-fashioned values or a throwback to the days when women were respected for how good they looked.
Opponents argue that beauty pageants, whether its Miss Universe or Miss Teen International, are demeaning to women and out of sync with the times. They say they are nothing more than symbols of decline.
In the past few decades Australia has taken more than a few faltering steps toward treating women with dignity and respect. Young women are being brought up knowing that they can do anything, as shown by inspiring role models in medicine such as 2003 Australian of the Year Professor Fiona Stanley.
In the 1960s and 70s, one of the first acts of the feminist movement was to picket beauty pageants on the premise that the industry promoted the view that it was acceptable to judge women on their appearance. Today many young Australian women are still profoundly uncomfortable with their body image, feeling under all kinds of pressures because they are judged by how they look.
Almost all of the pageant victors are wafer thin, reinforcing the message that thin equals beautiful. This ignores the fact that men and women come in all sizes and shapes. In a country where up to 60% of young women are on a diet at any one time and 70% of school girls say they want to lose weight, despite the fact that most have a normal BMI, such messages are profoundly hazardous to the mental health of young Australians.
Beauty pageants are harmless reminders of old-fashioned values or a throwback to the days when women were respected, and they are nothing more than symbols of decline, and Australia has taken more than a few faltering steps toward treating women with dignity and respect, and this ignores the fact that men and women come in all sizes and shapes, and such messages are hazardous to the mental health of young Australians.
1. Government should create better network of public transport available for everyone or build more roads owning population.
2. Design of buildings have positive or negative impact on people’s life and work?
3. Whether experiential learning (learning by doing) can work well in formal education. Do you agree or disagree?
4. Is it positive for students to learn with employment?
5. Large shopping malls are replacing small shops. What is your opinion about this? Discuss with appropriate examples.
6. Social media reduce people’s ability to focus on important issue. To what extent do you agree?
7. There are more men or women in certain jobs and there’s nothing we can change about it. Do you agree with that?
8. The advanced medical technology expands human’s life. Do you think it is a curse or blessing?
Summarise Spoken Text
Survey on happiness with large samples from regions, countries and even worldwide
Consistent patterns including basic things like income, marital and employment status is one large factor that makes people happy. This is consistent across all countries and states, and is a signal that our needs have been satisfied.
Other factors that constitutes a person’s happiness are environment, quality of life and natural instinct.
2. Different spectacles
In fashion, it is an accessory, such as the jewellery, a handbag or a watch.
For health purpose, it is a medical device.
In other language rather than English, it is a cross thesis??(含义不确定)
It is a part of you: in fashion industry or lifestyles.
People have two spectacles for different occasions, one for workplace, one for leisure on the beach.
3. A commercial advertisement
Consumers are very smart and can determine the value of the product. It only takes a few seconds to make a decision.
Brand image is important as consumers are willing to pay more for quality goods.
Fundamental engineering contradictions arise as consumers ask for soft, strong, durable products.
The softest product is however, very strong.
‘Tide’ - You don’t want it to separated before you put it in the washing machine.
4. Misuse of Drugs
Drugs should be enclosed and stored properly to avoid children accidentally accessing the drugs as it is very dangerous to do so.
People nowadays take drugs for the wrong reason. E.g. Some drugs used for bacterial infections cannot be used for virus infections.
The misuse of drugs is sometimes caused by an incorrect prescription which may cause allergic reactions.
If drugs are taken at wrong dosages, under wrong prescriptions, drug resistance may develop. Recommendations: physicians should give correct prescriptions, physicians should stress the importance of taking the right drugs to the patients. E.g. Patients should finish the whole course of their antibiotics.
5. Global warming/climate change
Climate change has become a severe problem which caused by increased carbon dioxide and other discharge of the greenhouse emissions.
The increase of population, limited resources and poverty will accelerate environmental problem
People cannot take the risks of ignoring scientists’ prediction.
Commercial organisations and governments should take the responsibility and actions.
6. Environmental law
British government launched the environmental law long before at the time of Charles the Second in order to control the impact of human activities on environment.
However, the enforcement of environmental law was not well-established.
Later, during the time of Industrial Revolution, British government reinforced the environment law to punish those companies who applied the Adam Smith theory to increase their profitability.
Managers were unsatisfied, because companies had to pay more money to ensure the health of their employees under the environmental law, which made companies less competitive in the market.
7. War of talents
The world is suffering from short of talents.
Demographic(人口统计)forces: Increasing longevity(长寿), declining birthrates(低出生率), and the disproportionate(失衡) size of the post-war baby boom generation.
The change of economic nature demands more skilled employees: Globalisation, with increasing economic integration across nations, profoundly impacts labor supply and the talent war. Capital markets are vast and global and rapid advances in digital technology emerged.
Global competition and increasing mobility: People are more willing to relocate outside their home countries after graduation, particularly high-skilled group.
Write From Dictation
1. She used to be editor of the student newspaper.
2. The artists tied/tie the conservative politicians, earned their roles of critics.
3. We study science to understand and appreciate the world around us.
4. Your lowest quiz grade has been omitted from the calculations.
5. We can’t consider any increase in price at this stage.
6. Evaluation forms are reviewed by (the) university personnel.
7. Tutors should set clear goals at stated class/classes.
8. The department has higher than normal proportion of postgraduate students.
9. Cell is the most basic building block for all animals and plants.
10. Teaching assistants will receive a monthly stipend for housing.
11. The sociology department is highly regarded worldwide.
12. Review all sources before drawing your conclusions.
13. Observers waited nervously and with bated breath for the concert.
14. University departments carefully monitored articles and other publications by faculty.
Fill in the Blanks
For a start, we need to change our concept of ‘retirement’, and we need to change mindsets arising from earlier government policy which, in the face of high unemployment levels, encouraged mature workers to take early retirement. Today, government encourages them to delay their retirement.
We now need to think of retirement as a phased process, where mature age workers gradually reduce their hours, and where they have considerable flexibility in how they combine their work and non work time.
We also need to recognise the broader change that is occurring in how people work, learn, and live. Increasingly we are moving away from a linear relationship between education, training, work, and retirement, as people move in and out of jobs, careers, caregiving, study, and leisure. Employers of choice remove the barriers between the different segments of people's lives, by creating flexible conditions of work and a range of leave entitlements. They take an individualised approach to workforce planning and development so that the needs of employers and employees can be met simultaneously. This approach supports the different transitions that occur across the life course - for example, school to work, becoming a parent, becoming responsible for the care of older relatives, and moving from work to retirement.
2. Dairy Farms
A few summers ago I visited two dairy farms, Huls Farm and Gardar Farm, which despite being located thousands of miles apart were still remarkably similar in their strengths and vulnerabilities. Both were by far the largest, most prosperous, most technologically advanced farms in their respective districts. In particular, each was cantered around a magnificent state-of-the-art barn for sheltering and milking cows. Those structures, both neatly divided into opposite-facing rows of cow stalls, dwarfed all other barns in the district. Both farms let their cows graze outdoors in lush pastures during the summer, produced their own hay to harvest in the late summer for feeding the cows through the winter, and increased(gained) their production of summer fodder and winter hay by irrigating their fields.
No two siblings are the same, not even identical twins. Parents often puzzle about why their children are so different from one another. They'll say, ‘I brought them I up all the same.’ They forget that what determines our behaviour isn't what happens to us but how we interpret what happens to us, and no two people ever see anything in exactly the same way.
With the increase in women's participation in the labourr force, many mothers have less time available to undertake domestic activities. At the same time, there has been increasing recognition that the father's role and relationship with a child is important.
1. Sustainable Development
Whatever happened to the idea of progress and a better future? I still believe both.
The Brundtland Report, our Common Future (1987) defines sustainable development as” development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Implicit in this definition is the idea that the old pattern of development could not be sustained. Is this true?
Development in the past was driven by growth and innovation. It led to new technologies and huge improvements in living standards.
2. The CEO of Wal-Mart
Wal-Mart CEO found out that consumers spent all their money
This trend ... negative effect ... this trend
The damage caused by ... confirm…serious.
Much more ... Problem is manageable.
3. Foreign aid
But beginning in the 1990s, foreign aid had begun to slowly improve.
Scrutiny by the news media shamed many developed countries into curbing their bad practices.
Today, the projects of organizations like the World Bank are meticulously inspected by watch dog groups.
Although the system is far from perfect, it is certainly more transparent than it was when foreign aid routinely helped ruthless dictators stay in power.