The uniquely scented flavor of vanilla is second only to chocolate in popularity on the world’s palate. It’s also the second most expensive spice after saffron. But highly labor intensive cultivation methods and the plant’s temperamental life cycle and propagation mean production on a global scale is struggling to keep up with the increasing demand for the product.
2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions
When countries assess their annual carbon dioxide emissions, they count up their cars and power stations, but bush fires are not included presumably because they are deemed to be events beyond human control. In Australia, Victoria alone sees several hundred thousand hectares burn each year in both 2004 and the present summer, the figure has been over 1 million hectares.
3. Diversity of Language
The diversity of human language may be compared to the diversity of the natural world. Just as the demise of plant spices reduces genetic diversity, and deprives humanity or potential medical and biological resources. So extinction of language takes with it a wealth of culture, art and knowledge.
4. Lenient Parents
Two sisters were at a dinner party when the conversation turned to upbringing. The elder sister started to say that her parents had been very strict and that she
had been rather frightened of them. Her sister, younger by two years, interrupted
in amazement. “What are you talking about?” she said. “Our parents were very lenient.”
At the beginning of each fiscal year funds are allocated to each State account in
accordance with the University's financial plan. Funds are allocated to each account by object of expenditure. Account managers are responsible for ensuring that adequate funds are available in the appropriate object before initiating transactions to use the funds.
Exhilarating, exhausting and intense, there are just some of the words used to describe doing an MBA, everyone's experience of doing MBA is, of course, different through denying that it's hard and demanding work whichever course you do. MBA is one of the fastest growing areas of studying in the UK so that must be a sustainable benefit against form in one pain.
1. Biographical information should be removed before the publication of the results.
2. People with an active lifestyle are less likely to die early or to have a major illness.
3. The flexibility is the key in this course this semester.
4. The United States has become a coffee culture in recent years.
5. What distinguishes him and others is that he used black and white paper.
6. Lecture theater is located on the ground floor of the pack building.
7. Answering this complex question with a sample yes or no is absolutely impossible.
8. In consultation with your supervisor, your thesis is approved by the faculty committee.
9. Due to rising for courses, university should increase their staff too.
10. Students will not be given credits for assignment submitted after due date.
11. The first person in space was from the Soviet Union.
12. Unfortunately, the two most interesting economic electives clash on my timetable.
The co-evolutionary relationship between cows and grass is one of nature's under-appreciated wonders; it also happens to be the key to understanding just about everything about modern meat.
For the grasses, which have evolved to withstand the grazing of ruminants, the cow maintains and expands their habitat by preventing trees and shrubs from gaining a foothold and hogging the sunlight; the animal also spreads grass seed, plants it with his hooves, and then fertilises it with his manure.
In exchange for these services the grasses offer ruminants a plentiful and exclusive supply of lunch. For cows (like sheep, bison, and other ruminants) have evolved the special ability to convert grass— which single-stomached creatures like us can't digest—into high-quality protein. They can do this because they possess what is surely the most highly evolved digestive organ in nature: the rumen. About the size of a medicine ball, the organ is essentially a forty-five-gallon fermentation tank in which a resident population of bacteria dines on grass.
The co-evolutionary relationship between cows and grass is a wonder, and grasses have evolved to withstand the grazing of ruminants, and cow maintains and expands their habitat, and cows have evolved the special ability to convert grass, and single-stomached creatures like us can't digest into high-quality protein because they possess what is surely the most highly evolved digestive organ in nature: the rumen.
2. Midday Napping (真实考题可能没有这么长)
A large new study has found that people who regularly took a siesta were significantly less likely to die of heart disease.
"Taking a nap could turn out to be an important weapon in the fight against coronary mortality," said Dimitrios Trichopoulos of the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston, who led the study published yesterday in the Archives of Internal Medicine.
The study of more than 23,000 Greek adults -- the biggest and best examination of the subject to date -- found that those who regularly took a midday siesta were more than 30 percent less likely to die of heart disease. Other experts said the results are intriguing. Heart disease kills more than 650,000 Americans each year, making it the nation's No. 1 cause of death.
"It's interesting. A little siesta, a little snooze may be beneficial," said Gerald Fletcher, a cardiologist at the Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Fla., speaking on behalf of the American Heart Association. "It's simple, but it has a lot of promise. “While more research is needed to confirm and explore the findings, there are several ways napping could reduce the risk of heart attacks, experts said. “Napping may help deal with the stress of daily living," said Michael Twery, who directs the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute's National Center on Sleep Disorders Research. "Another possibility is that it is part of the normal biological rhythm of daily living. The biological clock that drives sleep and wakefulness has two cycles each day, and one of them dips usually in the early afternoon. It's possible that not engaging in napping for some people might disrupt these processes."
Researchers have long known that countries such as Greece, Italy and Spain, where people commonly take siestas, have lower rates of heart disease than would be expected. But previous studies that attempted to study the relationship between naps and heart disease have produced mixed results. The new study is first to try to fully account for factors that might confuse the findings, such as physical activity, diet and other illnesses. "This study has a number of advantages," Trichopoulos said.
He and colleagues at the University of Athens examined 23,681 Greek men and women ages 20 to 86 who had no history of heart disease or any other serious health problem when they enrolled in the study between 1994 and 1999. The researchers asked the participants whether they took midday naps and, if so, how often and for how long. They also asked detailed questions about their health and lifestyles, such as whether they had any illnesses that might make them sleep more, how much exercise they got and what they ate.
After an average of more than six years of follow-up, 792 of the study subjects died, including 133 who died of heart disease. Of that group, 94 were nappers. After the researchers accounted for factors that could confuse the issue, they found that those who took naps frequently were 34 percent less likely to die of heart disease than those who did not. The biggest nappers -- 79 people who took a siesta for 30 minutes or more at least three times a week -- had a 37 percent lower risk.
Naps appeared to offer the most protection to working men: Those who took midday siestas either occasionally or systematically had a 64 percent lower risk of death from heart disease. Non-working men had a 36 percent reduction in risk. A similar analysis could not be done in women because too few died of heart disease.
Those who regularly took a midday siesta were more than 30 percent less likely to die of heart disease, and more research is needed to confirm and explore the findings, there are several ways napping could reduce the risk of heart attacks, and previous studies that attempted to study the relationship between naps and heart disease have produced mixed results, and naps appeared to offer the most protection to working men. (71words)
3. Beauty Contest
Since Australians Jennifer Hawkins and Lauryn Eagle were crowned Miss Universe and Miss Teen International respectively, there has been a dramatic increase in interest in beauty pageants in this country. These wins have also sparked a debate as to whether beauty pageants are just harmless reminders of old-fashioned values or a throwback to the days when women were respected for how good they looked.
Opponents argue that beauty pageants, whether its Miss Universe or Miss Teen International, are demeaning to women and out of sync with the times. They say they are nothing more than symbols of decline.
In the past few decades Australia has taken more than a few faltering steps toward treating women with dignity and respect. Young women are being brought up knowing that they can do anything, as shown by inspiring role models in medicine such as 2003 Australian of the Year Professor Fiona Stanley.
In the 1960s and 70s, one of the first acts of the feminist movement was to picket beauty pageants on the premise that the industry promoted the view that it was acceptable to judge women on their appearance. Today many young Australian women are still profoundly uncomfortable with their body image, feeling under all kinds of pressures because they are judged by how they look.
Almost all of the pageant victors are wafer thin, reinforcing the message that thin equals beautiful. This ignores the fact that men and women come in all sizes and shapes. In a country where up to 60% of young women are on a diet at any one time and 70% of school girls say they want to lose weight, despite the fact that most have a normal BMI, such messages are profoundly hazardous to the mental health of young Australians.
Beauty pageants are harmless reminders of old-fashioned values or a throwback to the days when women were respected, and they are nothing more than symbols of decline, and Australia has taken more than a few faltering steps toward treating women with dignity and respect, and this ignores the fact that men and women come in all sizes and shapes, and such messages are hazardous to the mental health of young Australians.
4. IBM Technology
As far as prediction is concerned, remember that the chairman of IBM predicted in the fifties that the world would need a maximum of around half a dozen computers, that the British Department for Education seemed to think in the eighties that we would all need to be able to code in BASIC and that in the nineties Microsoft failed to foresee the rapid growth of the Internet. Who could have predicted that one major effect of the automobile would be to bankrupt small shops across the nation? Could the early developers of the telephone have foreseen its development as a medium for person-to-person communication, rather than as a form of broadcasting medium? We all, including the 'experts', seem to be peculiarly inept at predicting the likely development of our technologies, even as far as the next year. We can, of course, try to extrapolate from experience of previous technologies, as I do below by comparing the technology of the Internet with the development of other information and communication technologies and by examining the earlier development of radio and print. But how justified I might be in doing so remains an open question. You might conceivably find the history of the British and French videotext systems, Prestel and Minitel, instructive. However, I am not entirely convinced that they are very relevant, nor do I know where you can find information about them on-line, so, rather than take up space here, I've briefly described them in a separate article.
We seem to be peculiarly inept at predicting the likely development of our technologies, and we can try to extrapolate from experience of previous technologies, and how justified I might be in doing so remains an open question, and I've briefly described them in a separate article.
5. Tiny frog found in Mexico
A miner in the state of Chiapas found a tiny tree frog that has been preserved in amber for 25 million years, a researcher said. If authenticated, the preserved frog would be the first of its kind found in Mexico, according to David Grimaldi, a biologist and curator at the American Museum of Natural History, who was not involved in the find.
The chunk of amber containing the frog, less than half an inch long, was uncovered by a miner in Mexicos southern Chiapas state in 2005 and was bought by a private collector, who loaned it to scientists for study. A few other preserved frogs have been found in chunks of amber a stone formed by ancient tree sap mostly in the Dominican Republic. Like those, the frog found in Chiapas appears to be of the genus Craugastor, whose descendants still inhabit the region, said biologist Gerardo Carbot of the Chiapas Natural History and Ecology Institute. Carbot announced the discovery this week.
The scientist said the frog lived about 25 million years ago, based on the geological strata where the amber was found. Carbot would like to extract a sample from the frogs remains in hopes of finding DNA that could identify the particular species, but doubts the owner would let him drill into the stone.
A miner in the state of Chiapas found a tiny tree frog has been preserved in amber for 25 million years, which would be the first of its kind found in Mexico, and it was bought by a private collector, and Carbot would like to extract a sample from the frogs remains in hopes of finding DNA that could identify the particular species, but doubts the owner would let him drill into the stone. (74 words)
1. Parents should be held legally responsible for children’s acts. What is your opinion? Support it with personal examples.
2. Design of buildings have positive or negative impact on people’s life and work?
3. It is important to maintain a right balance of your work and other respects of one’s life such as family and leisure sport. What is your opinion about this? Discuss with appropriate examples.
4. Whether experiential learning (learning by doing) can work well in formal education. Do you agree or disagree?
5. Is it positive for students to learn with employment?
6. Large shopping malls are replacing small shops. What is your opinion about this? Discuss with appropriate examples.
7. Discuss the significance of music to the study of young children. Certain kinds of music can promote young children learning do you agree or disagree.
8. The advanced medical technology expands human’s life. Do you think it is a curse or blessing?
Fill in the Blanks
Arbitraion is a method of conflict resolution which with more or less formalized mechanisms, occurs in many political and legal spheres. There are two main characteristics to arbitration. The first is that it is a voluntary process under which two parties in conflict atree between themselves to be bound by the judgment of a third party which has no other authority over them; the judgment, however, is not legally binding. The second is that there is usually no clear body of law or set of rules that must apply; the arbitrator is free, subject to any prior agreement with the conflicting parties, to decide on whatever basis of justice is deemed suitable.
2. Estée Lauder
Leonard Lauder, chief executive of the company his mother founded, says she always thought she “was growing a nice little business.” And that it is -- a little business that controls 45% of the cosmetics market in U.S. department stores. A little business that sells in 118 countries and last year grew to be $3.6 billion big in sales. The Lauder family's shares are worth more than $6 billion.
But early on, there wasn't a burgeoning business; there weren't houses in New York, Palm Beach, Fla., or the south of France. It is said that at one point there was one person to answer the telephones who changed her voice to become the shipping or billing department as needed.
You more or less know the Estée Lauder story because it's a chapter from the book of American business folklore. In short, Josephine Esther Mentzer, daughter of immigrants, lived above her father's hardware store in Corona, a section of Queens in New York City. She started her enterprise by selling skin creams concocted by her uncle, a chemist, in beauty shops, beach clubs and resorts.
No doubt the potions were good -- Estée Lauder was a quality fanatic -- but the saleslady was better. Much better. And she simply outworked everyone else in the cosmetics industry. She stalked the bosses of New York City department stores until she got some counter space at Saks Fifth Avenue in 1948. And once in that space, she utilized a personal selling approach that proved as potent as the promise of her skin regimens and perfumes.
3. Walt Disney World
Walt Disney World has become a pilgrimage site partly because of the luminosity of its cross-cultural and marketing and partly because its utopian aspects appeal powerfully to real needs in the capitalist society. Disney’s marketing is unique because it captured the symbolic essence of childhood but the company has gained access to all public shows, comic books, dolls, apparels, and educational film strips all point to the parks and each other.
4. WILLIAM SHAKESPARE
For all his fame and celebration, William Shakespeare remains a mysterious figure with regards to personal history. There are just two primary sources for information on the Bard: his works, and various legal and church documents that have survived from Elizabethan times. Naturally, there are many gaps in this body of information, which tells us little about Shakespeare the man.
1. A Pilot Delivering Mails
• After finishing first in his pilot training class, Lindbergh took his first job as the chief pilot of an airmail route operated by Robertson Aircraft Co. of Lambert Field in St.Louis, Missouri
• He flew the mail in a de Havilland DH-4 biplane to Springfield, Illinois, Peoria and Chicago.
• During his tenure on the mail route, he was renowned for delivering the mail under any circumstances.
• After a crash, he even salvaged bags of mail from his burning aircraft and immediately phoned Alexander Varney, Peoria's airport manager, to advise him to send a truck.
2. Canberra student
• A University of Canberra student has launched the nation’s first father-led literacy
project, to encourage fathers to become more involved in their children’s literacy.
• Julia Bocking’s Literacy and Dads (LADS) project aims to increase the number of fathers participating as literacy helpers in K-2 school reading programs at Queanbeyan Primary Schools.
• “There’s no program like this in Australia,” Ms Bocking said, who devised the project as the final component of her community education degree at the University.
• Having worked as a literacy tutor with teenagers, Ms Bocking saw the need for good attitudes towards reading to be formed early on - with the help of more male role models.
• “Teachers depend on parent helpers in the earlier school years, though research shows that nationally only five percent of these helpers are male,” she said. “A male that values reading sets a powerful role model, particularly for young boys, who are statistically more likely to end up in remedial literacy programs.”
3. Foreign aid
• But beginning in the 1990s, foreign aid had begun to slowly improve.
• Scrutiny by the news media shamed many developed countries into curbing their bad practices.
• Today, the projects of organizations like the World Bank are meticulously inspected by watch dog groups.
• Although the system is far from perfect, it is certainly more transparent than it was when foreign aid routinely helped ruthless dictators stay in power.
Summarise Spoken Text
1. Pandemic prevention
• Pandemic prevention and epidemic transmission in public health.
• Developed countries such as USA have protocols in place to prevent epidemics, such as antiviral drugs and vaccines.
• However, it is a big challenge for developing countries since they do not have the same level of resources as developed countries.
2. Vitamin D
• Vitamin D is, in fact, a kind of hormone which can be ingested from dietary.
• It is not necessary to ingest Vitamin D via food only if it can be sufficiently absorbed from sunshine.
• However, people have been migrating from the equator to other places where they need to put clothes on.
• Therefore, more Vitamin D via food is needed now as people’s skin are less exposed to sunshine.
Different systems of memories, including implicit and explicit memories.
• Implicit memories cannot be consciously recalled upon, and behaviours are automatic. This often relates to a persons cultural and social background. E.g. Using language naturally, reading and driving.
• Explicit memories are highly personal memories relating to time, space and people. It is totally different from implicit memory, which is why people can remember birthdays and answer multiple questions in a test.
• The text is about the benefits of laughing, especially in adversity.
• People realised the importance of laughing a long time ago and there are different understandings about humour in different regions. (Iran, Egypt, Soviet)
• There were war jokes about the Berlin Wall spreading among east regions for 30 years during the second World War, and this eased the harm of the war.
• Moreover, as humour, laughing can help people get through bleak and boring time.
• Laugh can be used as a great therapy. As a therapy, laughing can effectively improve people’s self-respect and identity.
5. Non-verbal language(description)
• Symbolic language is a layer of computer
• Why involve it? Because we need to communicate. Language is a good example: people use sign language to ask for help.
• It is good to use hand while communicating.
• Non-verbal communication plays an important role in communicating with others.
• E.g. Pterosaur(翼⻰), facial expressions, gestures, postures, presentations in job interviews.
6. Big Bang Theory – Cosmology
• Studying the cosmology of the universe is amazing.
• Big bang happened around ten to twenty billion years ago.
• A recently detailed measure indicates that big bang happened around 13.8 billion years ago, instead of 13 or 14 billion years.
• The universe has been on a continuous changing status ever since. Even when the universe started is known, we still need to understand how it developed.
• Big bang believed that all distant galaxies and clusters are receding away from our vantage point with an apparent velocity proportional to their distance.
7. Right Wing and Left Wing
• Socialism originated in the 1880s, while communism originated from 1840s.
• Both of them became ideologies after the French Revolution era.
• The left-wing refers to the people sitting on the left side of the speaker podium, representing aggressive political stands.
• The rightwing refers to the people sitting on the right side of the speaker podium, representing conservative to the old regime.
Write From Dictation:
1. Our food supply now contains so much added sugar that our metabolic system can not candle it.
2. She used to be the editor of student newspaper.
3. Climate change is now an acceptable phenomenon among reputable scientists.
4. Before submitting your dissertation, your advisor must approve your application.
5. Free campus tours run daily during summer for prospective students.
6. If the finance is a cause of concern, the scholarship may be available.
7. The artists tied/tie the conservative politicians, earned their roles of critics.
8. Clinical placement for nursing prepares students for professional practice.
9. The theme of the instrumental work exhibits more of a demure, compositional style.
10. Art is an expression of creative skill and imagination.
11. The aerial photographs were promptly registered for thorough evaluation.
12. Our professor is hosting the business development conference.
13. Supply and demand is one of the most fundamental concepts of economics.