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【飞凡机经】考前必刷:PTE十一月高频,真题预测!

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最近学员们都表示机经的命中率很高哦!

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01

SPEAKING


Read Aloud(部分)

1. Introvert and extrovert

Introvert (or those of us with introverted tendencies) tends to recharge by spending time alone. They lose energy from being around people for long periods of time, particularly large crowds. extroverts, on the other hand, gain energy from other people. Extroverts actually find their energy is sapped when they spend too much time alone. They recharge by being social.


2. Funds

At the beginning of each fiscal year funds are allocated to each State account in

accordance with the University's financial plan. Funds are allocated to each account by object of expenditure. Account managers are responsible for ensuring that adequate funds are available in the appropriate object before initiating transactions to use the funds.


3. Vanilla

The uniquely scented flavor of vanilla is second only to chocolate in popularity on the world’s palate. It’s also the second most expensive spice after saffron. But highly labor intensive cultivation methods and the plant’s temperamental life cycle and propagation mean production on a global scale is struggling to keep up with the increasing demand for the product.


4. Shakespeare 

A young man from a small provincial town, a man without independent wealth, without powerful family connections and without a university education, moves to London in the late 1580's, and in a remarkably short time, became the greatest playwright. Not of his age alone but of all time. How is an achievement of this magnitude to be explained? How did Shakespeare become Shakespeare?


5. Augustus

Augustus was given the powers of an absolute monarch, but he presented himself as the preserver of republican traditions. He treated the Senate, or state council, with great respect, and was made Consul year after year. He successfully reduced the political power of the army by retiring many soldiers, but giving them land or money to keep their loyalty.


6. Diversity of Language

The diversity of human language may be compared to the diversity of the natural world. Just as the demise of plant spices reduces genetic diversity, and deprives humanity or potential medical and biological resources. So extinction of language takes with it a wealth of culture, art and knowledge.


7. A ‘flattening’ of the world 

The beginning of the twenty-first century will be remembered, not for military conflicts or political events, but for a whole new age of globalization – a ‘flattening’ of the world. The explosion of advanced technologies now means that suddenly knowledge pools and resources have connected all over the planet, leveling the playing field as never before.


8. Akimbo 

Akimbo, this must be one of the odder-looking words in the language. It puzzles us in part because it doesn't seem to have any relatives. What's more, it is now virtually a fossil word, until recently almost invariably found in 'arms Akimbo', a posture in which a person stands with hands on hips and elbows sharply bent outward, one that signals impatience, hostility, and contempt.


9. Lenient Parents

Two sisters were at a dinner party when the conversation turned to upbringing. The elder sister started to say that her parents had been very strict and that she had been rather frightened of them. Her sister, younger by two years, interrupted in amazement. “What are you talking about?” she said. “Our parents were very lenient.”


10. MBA

Exhilarating, exhausting and intense, there are just some of the words used to describe doing an MBA, everyone's experience of doing MBA is, of course, different through denying that it's hard and demanding work whichever course you do. MBA is one of the fastest growing areas of studying in the UK so that must be a sustainable benefit against form in one pain.





Repeat Sentence(部分)


此题型可以搭配飞凡英语RS Practice Tool音频系列】一起使用 (点击链接前往观看)


1. 39.5% California residents don’t speak English at home.

2. A demonstrated ability to write clear, correct and concise English is bigotry.

3. A preliminary bibliography is due the week before the spring break

4. A thorough bibliography is needed at the end of every assignment

5. Anatomy is the study of internal and external structure of the body.

6. Establishing and retaining intellectual leadership clearly takes strong management skills.

7. Fish is for sport; meat is for survival.

8. He was constantly looking for ways to bring industry and agriculture together.

9. In consultation with your supervisor, your thesis is approved by the faculty committee.

10. In Europe, the political pressure is similar regarding globalization.

11. Knives and forks should be placed next to the spoons on the edge of the table

12. Meteorology is a subject of the earth's atmosphere.

13. More muscles are used in swimming than any other sport. 

14. Newspapers around the world are reporting the stories of the president.

15. People with an active lifestyle are less likely to die early or to have a major illness.





Describe Image(部分)

1.

2.


3.


4.


5.


6.

房间/楼层平面布局图最近频率也较高,请大家准备好模板,练熟~


7.




Retell Lecture(部分)

1. Australian Export


2. Influence of climate change


3. Loggerhead Sea Turtles

参考YouTube视频:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RV3wkzEP448

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eU4mTAaWb6k


4. A Survey

参考原文:

Let’s say if I’m asking which source do you often use to get information, Newspaper? Radio? TV?

And the survey shows 62% of the people chose internet.

You might be thinking I am going to say, how important the internet is, or how quickly it has changed the world for a few years. But what if I tell you this survey is conducted on the website globalandmail.com?

Our answer will be different. Because the people who did this survey on a website must be frequent users of internet. This sample is a biased sample. So we have to pay attention to how a survey is conducted.

5. Water on Mars

• In the past five years, the temperature of Mars has increased.

• The research conducted on the Mars indicates the prior existence of liquid water.

• The evidence is that researchers found several elements which are essential to form water, such as calcium carbonate, salt, mineral, and perchlorate.

• Consequently, we can speculate that there used to be water existed on Mars as liquid form and Mars may be a hospitable planet long time ago.


6. Napoleon


7. Language Disorder



更多预测请参阅完整版 11月PTE高频预测.pdf




02

WRITING

Summarise Written Text(部分)

1. Parents control their children’s TV watching

Why and to what extent should parents control their children’s TV watching? There is certainly nothing inherently wrong with TV. The problem is how much television a child watches and what effect it has on his life. Research has shown that as the amount of time spent watching TV goes up, the amount of time devoted not only to homework and study but other important aspects of life such as social development and physical activities decreases. 

Television is bound to have it tremendous impact on a child, both in terms of how many hours a week he watches TV and of what he sees. When a parent is concerned about the effects of television, he should consider a number of things: what TV offers the child in terms of information and knowledge, how many hours a week a youngster his age should watch television, the impact of violence and sex, and the influence of commercials. 

What about the family as a whole? Is the TV set a central piece of furniture in your home! Is it flicked on the moment someone enters the empty house? Is it on during the daytime? Is it part of the background noise of your family life? Do you demonstrate by your own viewing that television should be watched selectively? 


参考答案:

Parents should control their children’s TV watching because how much television a child watches and what effect it has on his life, and when a parent is concerned about the effects of television, he should consider a number of things: what TV offers the child in terms of information and knowledge, how many hours a week a youngster his age should watch television, the impact of violence and sex, and the influence of commercials. 



2. Overqualified workers 

If your recruiting efforts attract job applicants with too much experience a near certainty in this weak labour market you should consider a response that runs counter to most hiring managers MO: Don't reject those applicants out of hand.

Instead, take a closer look. New research shows that overqualified workers tend to perform better than other employees, and they don't quit any sooner. Furthermore, a simple managerial tactic empowerment can mitigate any dissatisfaction they may feel.

The prejudice against too-good employees is pervasive. Companies tend to prefer an applicant who is a perfect fit over someone who brings more intelligence, education, or experience than needed. On the surface, this bias makes sense: Studies have consistently shown that employees who consider themselves overqualified exhibit higher levels of discontent. For example, over-qualification correlated well with job dissatisfaction in a 2008 study of 156 call-centre reps by Israeli researchers Saul Fine and Baruch Nevo. And unlike discrimination based on age or gender, declining to hire overqualified workers is perfectly legal.

But even before the economic downturn, a surplus of overqualified candidates was a global problem, particularly in developing economies, where rising education levels are giving workers more skills than are needed to supply the growing service sectors. If managers can get beyond the conventional wisdom, the growing pool of too-good applicants is a great opportunity. Berrin Erdogan and Talya N. Bauer of Portland State University in Oregon found that overqualified workers' feelings of dissatisfaction can be dissipated by giving them autonomy in decision making. At stores where employees didn't feel empowered, over-educated workers expressed greater dissatisfaction than their colleagues did and were more likely to state an intention to quit. But that difference vanished where self-reported autonomy was high.


参考答案:

You should consider a response that runs counter to most hiring managers MO, and the prejudice against too-good employees is pervasive, and employees who consider themselves overqualified exhibit higher levels of discontent, but a surplus of overqualified candidates was a global problem, and overqualified workers' feelings of dissatisfaction can be dissipated by giving them autonomy in decision making.



3. Australian educational quality and equity

When Australians engage in debate about educational quality or equity, they often seem to accept that a country cannot achieve both at the same time. The lecture will present compelling international evidence that there are countries which do, though Australia is not among them.

Curriculum reforms intended to improve equity often fail to do so because they increase breadth or differentiation in offerings in a way that increases differences in quality. Further, these differences in quality often reflect differences in students’ social backgrounds because the ‘new’ offerings are typically taken up by relatively disadvantaged students who are not served well them. Evidence from New South Wales will be used to illustrate this point.

The need to improve the quality of education is well accepted across OECD and other countries as they seek to strengthen their human capital to underpin their modern, knowledge economies. Improved equity is also important for this purpose, since the demand for high-level skills is widespread and the opportunities for the low-skilled are diminishing.

Improved equity in education is also important for social cohesion. There are countries in which the education system seems primarily to reproduce existing social arrangements, conferring privilege where it already exists and denying it where it does not. Even in countries where the diagnosis might be less extreme, the capacity of schooling to build social cohesion is often diminished by the way in which schools separate individuals and groups. The lecture will explore ways in which an education system could provide choice, as Australia’s does, while also increasing social capital and helping to increase social cohesion. The perspective will be one of lifelong learning and not just learning during the years of schooling.


参考答案:

A country cannot achieve educational quality or equity at the same time, and curriculum reforms intended to improve equity often fail, and the need to improve the quality of education is well accepted, and improved equity in education is important for social cohesion, and the lecture will explore ways in which an education system could provide choice, as Australia’s does, while also increasing social capital and helping to increase social cohesion. (71 word)



4. Parents’ own birth order

Parents' own birth order can become an issue when dynamics in the family they are raising replicate the family in which they were raised. Agati notes common examples, such as a firstborn parent getting into "raging battles" with a firstborn child. "Both are used to getting the last word. Each has to be right. But the parent has to be the grown-up and step out of that battle," he advises. 

When youngest children become parents, Agati cautions that because they "may not have had high expectations placed on them, they in turn may not see their kids for their abilities. “But he also notes that since youngest children tend to be more social, "youngest parents can be helpful to their firstborn, who may have a harder time with social situations. These parents can help their eldest kids loosen up and not be so hard on themselves. 

Mom Susan Ritz says her own birth order didn't seem to affect her parenting until the youngest of her three children, Julie, was born. Julie was nine years younger than Ritz's oldest, Joshua, mirroring the age difference between Susan and her own older brother. "I would see Joshua do to Julie what my brother did to me," she says of the taunting and teasing by a much older sibling. 

"I had to try not to always take Julie's side." Biases can surface no matter what your own birth position was, as Lori Silverstone points out. "As a middle myself, I can be harder on my older daughter. I recall my older sister hitting me," she says of her reactions to her daughters' tussles. 


参考答案:

Parents' own birth order can become an issue when dynamics in the family they are raising replicate the family in which they were raised, and when youngest children become parents, they may not have had high expectations placed on them, and youngest children tend to be more social, and biases can surface no matter what your own birth position was, as Lori Silverstone points out. (65words)



5. Malaysia

Malaysia is one of the most pleasant, hassle-free countries to visit in Southeast Asia. Aside from its gleaming 21st century glass towers, it boasts some of the most superb beaches, mountains and national parks in the region. Malaysia is also launching its biggest-ever tourism campaign in effort to lure 20 million visitors here this year.

Any tourist itinerary would have to begin in the capital, Kuala Lumpur, where you will find the Petronas Twin Towers, which once comprised the worlds tallest buildings and now hold the title of second-tallest. Both the 88-story towers soar 1,480 feet high and are connected by a sky-bridge on the 41st floor. The limestone temple Batu Caves, located 9 miles north of the city, have a 328-foot-high ceiling and feature ornate Hindu shrines, including a 141-foot-tall gold- painted statue of a Hindu deity. To reach the caves, visitors have to climb a steep flight of 272 steps. In Sabah state on Borneo island not to be confused with Indonesias Borneo you'll find the small mushroom-shaped Sipadan island, off the coast of Sabah, rated as one of the top five diving sites in the world. Sipadan is the only oceanic island in Malaysia, rising from a 2,300-foot abyss in the Celebes Sea. You can also climb Mount Kinabalu, the tallest peak in Southeast Asia, visit the Sepilok Orang Utan Sanctuary, go white-water rafting and catch a glimpse of the bizarre Proboscis monkey, a primate found only in Borneo with a huge pendulous nose, a characteristic pot belly and strange honking sounds.

While you're in Malaysia, consider a trip to Malacca. In its heyday, this southern state was a powerful Malay sultanate and a booming trading port in the region. Facing the Straits of Malacca, this historical state is now a place of intriguing Chinese streets, antique shops, old temples and reminders of European colonial powers. Another interesting destination is Penang, known as the Pearl of the Orient. This island off the northwest coast of Malaysia boasts of a rich Chinese cultural heritage, good food and beautiful beaches.


参考答案:

Malaysia is one of the most pleasant, hassle-free countries to visit in Southeast Asia, and any tourist itinerary would have to begin in the capital, Kuala Lumpur, and Sipadan is the only oceanic island in Malaysia, and you can also climb Mount Kinabalu, and Malacca was a powerful Malay sultanate and a booming trading port in the region, and Penang boasts of a rich Chinese cultural heritage, good food and beautiful beaches. (74 words)



6. Cow and grass 

The co-evolutionary relationship between cows and grass is one of nature's under-appreciated wonders; it also happens to be the key to understanding just about everything about modern meat.  

For the grasses, which have evolved to withstand the grazing of ruminants, the cow maintains and expands their habitat by preventing trees and shrubs from gaining a foothold and hogging the sunlight; the animal also spreads grass seed, plants it with his hooves, and then fertilises it with his manure. 

In exchange for these services the grasses offer ruminants a plentiful and exclusive supply of lunch. For cows (like sheep, bison, and other ruminants) have evolved the special ability to convert grass— which single-stomached creatures like us can't digest—into high-quality protein. They can do this because they possess what is surely the most highly evolved digestive organ in nature: the rumen. About the size of a medicine ball, the organ is essentially a forty-five-gallon fermentation tank in which a resident population of bacteria dines on grass. 


参考答案:

The co-evolutionary relationship between cows and grass is a wonder, and grasses have evolved to withstand the grazing of ruminants, and cow maintains and expands their habitat, and cows have evolved the special ability to convert grass, and single-stomached creatures like us can't digest into high-quality protein because they possess what is surely the most highly evolved digestive organ in nature: the rumen.



Essay(部分)

1. Government should create better network of public transport available for everyone or build more roads owning population. 

2. Design of buildings have positive or negative impact on people’s life and work? 

3. It is important to maintain a right balance of your work and other respects of one’s life such as family and leisure sport. What is your opinion about this? Discuss with appropriate examples.

4. Whether experiential learning (learning by doing) can work well in formal education. Do you agree or disagree?

5. How widely of you think the problem spreads that people spend too much time on work than their personal life and experience time shortage? What problems will it cause?

6. Experience is more effective and useful than books and formal education. What is your opinion?

7. Is it fair for universities to deduct students’ marks when their assignments are overdue?

8. Parents should be held legally responsible for children’s acts. What is your opinion? Support it with personal examples.

9. Governments and international institution are faced with many global problems. What these problems could be? Measure?

10. Happiness index is becoming a new national success rather than only economic growth. What do you think about this idea? What can be used to measure happiness index?




更多预测请参阅完整版 11月PTE高频预测.pdf






03

LISTENING


Summarise Spoken Text(部分)

1. Globalisation

  • There are three definitions for globalisation.

  • Firstly, there is a proliferation of trade, transactions and multinational companies beyond the borders.

  • Secondly, there are more travel and cooperations between companies from different nations.

  • Thirdly, economy system: a integrated economy has been formed as countries depend on each other more in terms of production and consumption, and the production process has been split for different countries.


2. Memories

  • Different systems of memories, including implicit and explicit memories.

  • Implicit memories cannot be consciously recalled upon, and behaviours are automatic. This often relates to a persons cultural and social background. E.g. Using language naturally, reading and driving.

  • Explicit memories are highly personal memories relating to time, space and people. It is totally different from implicit memory, which is why people can remember birthdays and answer multiple questions in a test.


3. Decline of Bees

  • The sign of decline in number of bees

  • The drivers of these declines vary, depending on different species.

  • The loss of pollination could be huge and catastrophic, which was not yet been proved.

  • The positive side is that people are aware of this and are taking actions to fix it.


4. Fishing Industry in Africa 

  • According to a research regarding the relationship between food and income in Africa, most residents in Africa suffer from poverty and they have to live on fish. 

  • Fish is not only the major source of food and protein for these residents, but also the major source of their income because fishing industry can attract tourists around the world which can effectively facilitate the economic development.


5. War of talents

  • The world is suffering from short of talents.

  • Demographic(人口统计)forces: Increasing longevity(长寿), declining birthrates(低出生率), and the disproportionate(失衡) size of the post-war baby boom generation.

  • The change of economic nature demands more skilled employees: Globalisation, with increasing economic integration across nations, profoundly impacts labor supply and the talent war. Capital markets are vast and global and rapid advances in digital technology emerged.

  • Global competition and increasing mobility: People are more willing to relocate outside their home countries after graduation, particularly high-skilled group.


6. A commercial advertisement 

  • Consumers are very smart and can determine the value of the product. It only takes a few seconds to make a decision.

  • Brand image is important as consumers are willing to pay more for quality goods.

  • Fundamental engineering contradictions arise as consumers ask for soft, strong, durable products.

  • The softest product is however, very strong. 

  • Tide’ - You don’t want it to separated before you put it in the washing machine.


7. Indian peasants’ debts

  • Because of globalisation and patent, Indian peasants have to buy seeds from those companies that monopolise the market.

  • Peasants have to keep on using pesticide produced from these companies for the growth of the corps.

  • The agriculture products’ price is continuously decreasing, while the price of seeds and pesticide has increased by 4000 percent in the past 5 years.

  • Thus peasants have to borrow money from the companies, which eventually makes them unable to feed themselves and some of them more under pressure.

  • (Note: Indian Rupee 印度卢比)


8. The Definition of Risk

  • The definition of words from the dictionary is various. 

  • There are two different primary definitions of the word ‘risk,’ One means the situation of being in danger. The other means the consequence or the chance of being in danger. 

  • The situation is similar to the word ‘safe' and ‘safety,' safe means being out of the dangerous situation, while safety is a condition of being safe.


9. Australian housing

  • Economic growth of the society

  • Affordable mortgage rates

  • Increased immigration leads to higher number of housing required while suppliers remain unchanged.

  • Increased purchasing power of buyers.


10. Human Right in UK

  • This lecture mainly discussed the free human rights in UK.

  • During the second world war, UK was the first country that mentioned free rights among other countries.

  • It set up the baseline and minimum standards.

  • The positive aspects of human rights include right to marry and election. The negative aspects include sex and religion.

  • Other aspects that UK government mentioned include voting, election, tourism and trading.



Fill in the Blanks

1. Smart Card

Well in 2004 we integrated ticketing in South East Queensland, so we introduced a paper ticket that allowed you to travel across all the three modes in South East Queensland, so bus, train and ferry, and the second stage of integrated ticketing is the introduction of a Smart Card, and the Smart Card will enable people to store value so to put value on the card, and then to use the card for travelling around the system.

音频地址:

http://mpegmedia.abc.net.au/rn/podcast/2006/12/bbg_20061210.mp3 [37:16-37:43] 


2. Getting bored in class

A majority of U.S. high school students say they get bored in class every day, and more than one out of five has considered dropping out, according to a survey released on Wednesday. The survey of 81 ,000 students in 26 states found two-thirds of high school students complain of boredom, usually because the subject matter was irrelevant or their teachers didn't seem to care about them.

(注:26写数字即可)


3. Patriotism

…refine and enlarge the public views by passing them through the medium of a chosen body of citizens, whose wisdom may best discern the true interest of their country and whose patriotism and love of justice will be least likely to sacrifice it to temporary or partial considerations.





Write From Dictation(部分)

1. Animals raised in captivity behave differently from their wild counterparts.

2. Clinical placement for nursing will prepare students for professional practice.

3. I thought we would meet in the small meeting room. 

4. If finance is a cause of concern, scholarships may be available.

5. It is hard to anticipate how all the characters would/were in the act. (回忆不准确考场中请注意)

6. Mutually exclusive events are described (as) neither/either complementary nor/or opposing.

7. Observers waited nervously and held a/the breath for the concert.

8. Review all resources before drawing your conclusion.

9. Scientists are always asking governments for more money.

10. She used to be the editor of student newspaper.

11. Students have options to live in campus residences or apartment.

12. Students were instructed to submit their assignments by Friday.

13. Teaching assistants will receive monthly fees for housing.

14. The aerial photograph was promptly registered for thoroughly evaluations.

15. The artist ties the conservative politicians, earned their roles of critics.

16. The business plan/development seminar includes an internship with a local firm.

17. The chemistry building is located at the entrance of/to the campus.

18. The first assignment is due on the fourteenth of September.

19. The library holds a substantial collection of materials on economic history.

20. The meeting will have some struggle overlaps. /That means we will have some struggling overlaps. (考场中语速很快,请注意)




更多预测请参阅完整版 11月PTE高频预测.pdf





04

READING


Fill in The Blanks(部分)

1.Dairy Farms

A few summers ago I visited two dairy farms, Huls Farm and Gardar Farm, which despite being located thousands of miles apart were still remarkably similar in their strengths and vulnerabilities. Both were by far the largest, most prosperous, most technologically advanced farms in their respective districts. In particular, each was cantered around a magnificent state-of-the-art barn for sheltering and milking cows. Those structures, both neatly divided into opposite-facing rows of cow stalls, dwarfed all other barns in the district. Both farms let their cows grazeoutdoors in lush pastures during the summer, produced their own hay to harvest in the late summer for feeding the cows through the winter, andincreased (gained) their production of summer fodder and winter hay byirrigating their fields. 


2.Arbitration

Arbitraion is a method of conflict resolution which with more or less formalized mechanisms, occurs in many political and legal spheres. There are two main characteristics to arbitration. The first is that it is a voluntary process under which two parties in conflict atree between themselves to be bound by the judgment of a third party which has no other authority over them; the judgment, however, is not legally binding. The second is that there is usually no clear body of law or set of rules that must apply; the arbitrator is free, subject to any prior agreement with the conflicting parties, to decide on whatever basis of justice is deemed suitable.


3.Estée Lauder 

Leonard Lauder, chief executive of the company his mother founded, says she always thought she “was growing a nice little business.” And that it is -- a little business that controls 45% of the cosmetics market in U.S. department stores. A little business that sells in 118 countries and last year grew to be $3.6 billion big in sales. The Lauder family's shares are worth more than $6 billion. 

But early on, there wasn't a burgeoning business; there weren't houses in New York, Palm Beach, Fla., or the south of France. It is said that at one point there was one person to answer the telephones who changed her voice to become the shipping or billing department as needed. 

You more or less know the Estée Lauder story because it's a chapter from the book of American business folklore. In short, Josephine Esther Mentzer, daughter of immigrants, lived above her father's hardware store in Corona, a section of Queens in New York City. She started herenterprise by selling skin creams concocted by her uncle, a chemist, in beauty shops, beach clubs and resorts. 

No doubt the potions were good -- Estée Lauder was a quality fanatic -- but the saleslady was better. Much better. And she simply outworked everyone else in the cosmetics industry. She stalked the bosses of New York City department stores until she got some counter space at Saks Fifth Avenue in 1948. And once in that space, she utilized a personal selling approach that proved as potent as the promise of her skin regimens and perfumes. 


4. Great Barrier Reef

The ocean floor is home to many unique communities of plants and animals. Most of these marine ecosystems are near the water surface, such as the Great Barrier Reef, a 2,000km long coral formation off the northeaster coast of Australia. Coral reefs, like nearly all complex living communities, depend on solar energy for growth (photosynthesis). The sun’s energy, however, penetrates at most only about 300m below the surface of the water. The relatively shallow penetration of solar energy and the sinking of cold, sub-polar water combine to make most of the deep ocean floor a frigid environment with few life forms. 

In 1977, scientists discovered hot springs at a depth of 2.5km, on the Galapagos Rift (spreading ridge) off the coast of Ecuador. This exciting discovery was not really a surprise. Since the early 1970s, scientists had predicted that hot springs (geothermal vents) should be found at the active spreading centres along the mid-oceanic ridges, where magma, at temperatures over 1,000°C, presumably was being erupted to form new oceanic crust. More exciting, because it was totally unexpected, was the discovery of abundant and unusual sea life – giant tube worms, huge clams, and mussels – that thrived around the hot springs. 


5.Herbal

The medical use of plants is recorded on fragments of papyrus and clay tablets from ancient Egypt.

A Herbal that was translated into Latin and Arabic. …… An illustrated manuscript copy of the text made in Constantinople survives from the sixth century

They provided valuable information for apothecaries, whose job it was to make the pills and potions prescribed by physicians.





Re-order Paragraph(部分)

1.The job of a manager

  • The job of a manager in the work place is to get things done through the employee.

  • In order to do this, the manager should be able to motivate its employees.

  • However, this easier said than done.

  • Motivation practice and theory are difficult, complex subjects touching on several disciplines.


2.Sustainable Development

  • Whatever happened to the idea of progress and a better future? I still believe both.

  • The Brundtland Report, our Common Future (1987) defines sustainable development as” development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

  • Implicit in this definition is the idea that the old pattern of development could not be sustained. Is this true?

  • Development in the past was driven by growth and innovation. It led to new technologies and huge improvements in living standards.



3. Rugby

  • Citizens commonly identify with their nation in the context of major sporting events: imagining the nation is easier when there is a national team playing another nation (Hobsbawm, 1990). 

  • Rugby in Wales is a particularly strong example of this phenomenon, being perhaps the main thing that unites people in Wales. 

  • In many ways rugby in Wales defines what Wales is and what people in Wales share. 

  • From outside Wales, too, it is the rugby that commonly defines the nation - with the sport providing both widespread interest and one of the few positive associations of outsiders' perceptions of Wales. 


4.Foreign aid

  • But beginning in the 1990s, foreign aid had begun to slowly improve.

  • Scrutiny by the news media shamed many developed countries into curbing their bad practices.

  • Today, the projects of organizations like the World Bank are meticulously inspected by watch dog groups.

  • Although the system is far from perfect, it is certainly more transparent than it was when foreign aid routinely helped ruthless dictators stay in power.



5. A Pilot Delivering Mails

  • After finishing first in his pilot training class, Lindbergh took his first job as the chief pilot of an airmail route operated by Robertson Aircraft Co. of Lambert Field in St.Louis, Missouri.

  • He flew the mail in a de Havilland DH-4 biplane to Springfield, Illinois, Peoria and Chicago.

  • During his tenure on the mail route, he was renowned for delivering the mail under any circumstances。

  • After a crash, he even salvaged bags of mail from his burning aircraft and immediately phoned Alexander Varney, Peoria's airport manager, to advise him to send a truck.




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