The uniquely scented flavor of vanilla is second only to chocolate in popularity on the world’s palate. It’s also the second most expensive spice after saffron. But highly labor intensive cultivation methods and the plant’s temperamental life cycle and propagation mean production on a global scale is struggling to keep up with the increasing demand for the product.
A young man from a small provincial town, a man without independent wealth, without powerful family connections and without a university education, moves to London in the late 1580's, and in a remarkably short time, became the greatest playwright. Not of his age alone but of all time. How is an achievement of this magnitude to be explained? How did Shakespeare become Shakespeare?
3. Diversity of Language
The diversity of human language may be compared to the diversity of the natural world. Just as the demise of plant spices reduces genetic diversity, and deprives humanity or potential medical and biological resources. So extinction of language takes with it a wealth of culture, art and knowledge.
4. Lenient Parents
Two sisters were at a dinner party when the conversation turned to upbringing. The elder sister started to say that her parents had been very strict and that she had been rather frightened of them. Her sister, younger by two years, interrupted in amazement. “What are you talking about?” she said. “Our parents were very lenient.”
Exhilarating, exhausting and intense, there are just some of the words used to describe doing an MBA, everyone's experience of doing MBA is, of course, different through denying that it's hard and demanding work whichever course you do. MBA is one of the fastest growing areas of studying in the UK so that must be a sustainable benefit against form in one pain.
While blue is one of the most popular colours, it is one of the least appetizing. Blue food is rare in nature. Food researchers say that when humans searched for food, they learned to avoid toxic or spoiled objects, which were often blue, black, or purple. When food dyed blue is served to study subjects, they lose appetite.
1. Please register your student email account at your earliest convenience.
2. Distinguish him from other is the dramatic use of black and white photography.
3. By clicking this button, you agree with the terms and condition of the website.
4. The glass is not the real solid, because it doesn’t have crystal structure.
5. The real reason for world’s hunger is not the lack of food, but poverty.
6. When demand for the course rose, university authorities took on additional academic.
7. You should raise your concern with the head of the school.
8. The content of the book on the cover must be in capitals.
9. We are delighted to have professor Robert to join our faculty.
10. Could you please pass the handout to the students that are in your row?
11. The verdict depends on which side is more convincing.
12. The flexibility is the key in this course this semester.
13. Being a vegan means not consuming any animal products.
14. Biography information should be removed before the publication of the results.
15. Student loans are now available for international students.
16. Our university has strong partnerships with industry as well as collaborative relationships with government bodies.
17. Sport is the cause of traumatic brain injuries in the United States.
18. Lecture theater is located on the ground floor of the park building.
19. Answering this complex question with a simple yes or no is absolutely impossible.
20. Number the beakers and put them away until tomorrow.
21. In consultation with your supervisor, your thesis is approved by the faculty committee.
1. Water on Mars
• In the past five years, the temperature of Mars has increased.
• The research conducted on the Mars indicates the prior existence of liquid water.
• The evidence is that researchers found several elements which are essential to form water, such as calcium carbonate, salt, mineral, and perchlorate.
• Consequently, we can speculate that there used to be water existed on Mars as liquid form and Mars may be a hospitable planet long time ago.
2. Green Revolution: Rice
3. Authority and Language
But when we move into working with communities, we have to recognize that the communities have to be the authority in their language.
Actually a woman in the class I’m teaching at Sydney at the moment, a career woman, expressed this very nicely, although she was talking about something else, she was distinguishing expertise from authority. And certainly linguists because of our training we do have expertise in certain very narrow areas of language, but we don’t have the authority over what to do with that knowledge or what to do with other knowledge that the community produces.
I guess for me the bottom line is languages are lost because of the dominance of one people over another. That’s not rocket science, it’s not hard to work that out. But then what that means is if in working with language revival we continue to hold the authority, we actually haven’t done anything towards undoing how languages are lost in the first place, so in a sense the languages are still lost if the authority is still lost.
4. Brain Development
5. Air Pollution and Combustion
7. Language Disorder
Summarise Written Text（部分）
1. Parents control their children’s TV watching
Why and to what extent should parents control their children’s TV watching? There is certainly nothing inherently wrong with TV. The problem is how much television a child watches and what effect it has on his life. Research has shown that as the amount of time spent watching TV goes up, the amount of time devoted not only to homework and study but other important aspects of life such as social development and physical activities decreases.
Television is bound to have it tremendous impact on a child, both in terms of how many hours a week he watches TV and of what he sees. When a parent is concerned about the effects of television, he should consider a number of things: what TV offers the child in terms of information and knowledge, how many hours a week a youngster his age should watch television, the impact of violence and sex, and the influence of commercials.
What about the family as a whole? Is the TV set a central piece of furniture in your home! Is it flicked on the moment someone enters the empty house? Is it on during the daytime? Is it part of the background noise of your family life? Do you demonstrate by your own viewing that television should be watched selectively?
Parents should control their children’s TV watching because how much television a child watches and what effect it has on his life, and when a parent is concerned about the effects of television, he should consider a number of things: what TV offers the child in terms of information and knowledge, how many hours a week a youngster his age should watch television, the impact of violence and sex, and the influence of commercials.
2. Armed police coming to school
Armed police have been brought into NSW schools to reduce crime rates and educate students. The 40 School Liaison Police (SLP) officers have been allocated to public and private high schools across the state.
Organisers say the officers, who began work last week, will build positive relationships between police and students. But parent groups waned of potential dangers of armed police working at schools in communities where police relations were already under strain.
Among their duties, the SLPs will conduct crime prevention workshops, talking to students about issues including shoplifting, offensive behaviour, graffiti and drugs and alcohol. They can also advise school principals. One SLP, Constable Ben Purvis, began work in the inner Sydney region last week, including at Alexandria Park Community School’s senior campus. Previously stationed as a crime prevention officer at The Rocks, he now has 27 schools under his jurisdiction in areas including The Rocks, Redfern and Kings Cross.
Constable Purvis said the full-time position would see him working on the broader issues of crime prevention. “I am not a security guard,” he said. “I am not there to patrol the school.
We want to improve relationships between police and schoolchildren, to have positive interaction. We are coming to the school and giving them knowledge to improve their own safety." The use of fake ID among older students is among the issues he has already discussed with principals. Parents' groups responded to the program positively, but said it may spark a range of community reactions. "It is a good thing and an innovative idea and there could be some positive benefits," Council of Catholic School Parents executive officer Danielle Cronin said. "Different communities will respond to this kind of presence in different ways.
Armed police have been brought into NSW schools to reduce crime rates and educate students, and officers will build positive relationships between police and students, and SLPs will conduct crime prevention workshops, and they can also advise school principal, and it is a good thing and an innovative idea and there could be some positive benefits, and different communities will respond to this kind of presence in different way.(69 words)
When the Rosetta Stone was discovered in 1799, the carved characters that covered its surface were quickly copied. Printers ink was applied to the Stone and white paper was laid over it. When the paper was removed, it revealed an exact copy of the text but in reverse. Since then, many copies or facsimiles have been made using a variety of materials. Inevitably, the surface of the Stone accumulated many layers of material left over from these activities, despite attempts to remove any residue. Once on display, the grease from many thousands of human hands eager to touch the Stone added to the problem.
An opportunity for investigation and cleaning the Rosetta Stone arose when this famous object was made the centerpiece of the Cracking Codes exhibition at The British Museum in 1999. When work commenced to remove all but the original, ancient material, the stone was black with white lettering. As treatment progressed, the different substances uncovered were analyzed. Grease from human handling, a coating of carnauba wax from the early 1800s and printers ink from 1799 were cleaned away using cotton wool swabs and liniment of soap, white spirit, acetone and purified water. Finally, white paint in the text, applied in 1981, which had been left in place until now as a protective coating, was removed with cotton swabs and purified water. A small square at the bottom left corner of the face of the Stone was left untouched to show the darkened wax and the white infill.
The Rosetta Stone was discovered in 1799, the carved characters that covered its surface were quickly copied, and the surface of the Stone accumulated many layers of material left over from these activities, despite attempts to remove any residue, and when work commenced to remove all but the original, ancient material,l the stone was black with white lettering.
4. Parents’ own birth order
Parents' own birth order can become an issue when dynamics in the family they are raising replicate the family in which they were raised. Agati notes common examples, such as a firstborn parent getting into "raging battles" with a firstborn child. "Both are used to getting the last word. Each has to be right. But the parent has to be the grown-up and step out of that battle," he advises.
When youngest children become parents, Agati cautions that because they "may not have had high expectations placed on them, they in turn may not see their kids for their abilities. “But he also notes that since youngest children tend to be more social, "youngest parents can be helpful to their firstborn, who may have a harder time with social situations. These parents can help their eldest kids loosen up and not be so hard on themselves.
Mom Susan Ritz says her own birth order didn't seem to affect her parenting until the youngest of her three children, Julie, was born. Julie was nine years younger than Ritz's oldest, Joshua, mirroring the age difference between Susan and her own older brother. "I would see Joshua do to Julie what my brother did to me," she says of the taunting and teasing by a much older sibling.
"I had to try not to always take Julie's side." Biases can surface no matter what your own birth position was, as Lori Silverstone points out. "As a middle myself, I can be harder on my older daughter. I recall my older sister hitting me," she says of her reactions to her daughters' tussles.
Parents' own birth order can become an issue when dynamics in the family they are raising replicate the family in which they were raised, and when youngest children become parents, they may not have had high expectations placed on them, and youngest children tend to be more social, and biases can surface no matter what your own birth position was, as Lori Silverstone points out. (65words)
Malaysia is one of the most pleasant, hassle-free countries to visit in Southeast Asia. Aside from its gleaming 21st century glass towers, it boasts some of the most superb beaches, mountains and national parks in the region. Malaysia is also launching its biggest-ever tourism campaign in effort to lure 20 million visitors here this year.
Any tourist itinerary would have to begin in the capital, Kuala Lumpur, where you will find the Petronas Twin Towers, which once comprised the worlds tallest buildings and now hold the title of second-tallest. Both the 88-story towers soar 1,480 feet high and are connected by a sky-bridge on the 41st floor. The limestone temple Batu Caves, located 9 miles north of the city, have a 328-foot-high ceiling and feature ornate Hindu shrines, including a 141-foot-tall gold- painted statue of a Hindu deity. To reach the caves, visitors have to climb a steep flight of 272 steps. In Sabah state on Borneo island not to be confused with Indonesias Borneo you'll find the small mushroom-shaped Sipadan island, off the coast of Sabah, rated as one of the top five diving sites in the world. Sipadan is the only oceanic island in Malaysia, rising from a 2,300-foot abyss in the Celebes Sea. You can also climb Mount Kinabalu, the tallest peak in Southeast Asia, visit the Sepilok Orang Utan Sanctuary, go white-water rafting and catch a glimpse of the bizarre Proboscis monkey, a primate found only in Borneo with a huge pendulous nose, a characteristic pot belly and strange honking sounds.
While you're in Malaysia, consider a trip to Malacca. In its heyday, this southern state was a powerful Malay sultanate and a booming trading port in the region. Facing the Straits of Malacca, this historical state is now a place of intriguing Chinese streets, antique shops, old temples and reminders of European colonial powers. Another interesting destination is Penang, known as the Pearl of the Orient. This island off the northwest coast of Malaysia boasts of a rich Chinese cultural heritage, good food and beautiful beaches.
Malaysia is one of the most pleasant, hassle-free countries to visit in Southeast Asia, and any tourist itinerary would have to begin in the capital, Kuala Lumpur, and Sipadan is the only oceanic island in Malaysia, and you can also climb Mount Kinabalu, and Malacca was a powerful Malay sultanate and a booming trading port in the region, and Penang boasts of a rich Chinese cultural heritage, good food and beautiful beaches. (74 words）
6. Tiny frog found in Mexico
A miner in the state of Chiapas found a tiny tree frog that has been preserved in amber for 25 million years, a researcher said. If authenticated, the preserved frog would be the first of its kind found in Mexico, according to David Grimaldi, a biologist and curator at the American Museum of Natural History, who was not involved in the find.
The chunk of amber containing the frog, less than half an inch long, was uncovered by a miner in Mexicos southern Chiapas state in 2005 and was bought by a private collector, who loaned it to scientists for study. A few other preserved frogs have been found in chunks of amber a stone formed by ancient tree sap mostly in the Dominican Republic. Like those, the frog found in Chiapas appears to be of the genus Craugastor, whose descendants still inhabit the region, said biologist Gerardo Carbot of the Chiapas Natural History and Ecology Institute. Carbot announced the discovery this week.
The scientist said the frog lived about 25 million years ago, based on the geological strata where the amber was found. Carbot would like to extract a sample from the frogs remains in hopes of finding DNA that could identify the particular species, but doubts the owner would let him drill into the stone.
A miner in the state of Chiapas found a tiny tree frog has been preserved in amber for 25 million years, which would be the first of its kind found in Mexico, and it was bought by a private collector, and Carbot would like to extract a sample from the frogs remains in hopes of finding DNA that could identify the particular species, but doubts the owner would let him drill into the stone. (74 words)
1. It is the only way to reduce air pollution by increase the price of fuel of vehicles. (新)
2. The purpose of business is not change society but to maximize profits. (新)
3. Internet can make traditional schools unnecessary in the future. (新)
4. It is important to maintain a right balance of your work and other respects of one’s life such as family and leisure sport. What is your opinion about this? Discuss with appropriate examples.
5. Whether experiential learning (learning by doing) can work well in formal education. Do you agree or disagree?
6. How widely of you think the problem spreads that people spend too much time on work than their personal life and experience time shortage? What problems will it cause?
7. Is it fair for universities to deduct students’ marks when their assignments are overdue?
8. Parents should be held legally responsible for children’s acts. What is your opinion? Support it with personal examples.
9. Governments and international institution are faced with many global problems. What these problems could be? Measure?
10. Happiness index is becoming a new national success rather than only economic growth. What do you think about this idea? What can be used to measure happiness index?
11. Do you think cashless society is realistic and why? What are the advantages and disadvantages? (原题目中提到了use of credit card)
12. Social media reduce people’s ability to focus on important issue. TO what extend do you agree?
13. Discuss the significance of music to the study of young children. Certain kinds of music can promote young children learning do you agree or disagree.
14. Large shopping malls are replacing small shops. What is your opinion about this? Discuss with appropriate examples.
15. The advanced medical technology expands human’s life. Do you think it is a curse or blessing?
Summarise Spoken Text（部分）
1. Environmental law
British government launched the environmental law long before at the time of Charles the Second in order to control the impact of human activities on environment.
However, the enforcement of environmental law was not well-established.
Later, during the time of Industrial Revolution, British government reinforced the environment law to punish those companies who applied the Adam Smith theory to increase their profitability.
Managers were unsatisfied, because companies had to pay more money to ensure the health of their employees under the environmental law, which made companies less competitive in the market.
2. Australian housing
Economic growth of the society
Affordable mortgage rates
Increased immigration leads to higher number of housing required while suppliers remain unchanged.
Increased purchasing power of buyers.
3. Human Right in UK
This lecture mainly discussed the free human rights in UK.
During the second world war, UK was the first country that mentioned free rights among other countries.
It set up the baseline and minimum standards.
The positive aspects of human rights include right to marry and election. The negative aspects include sex and religion.
Other aspects that UK government mentioned include voting, election, tourism and trading.
4. The Definition of Risk
The definition of words from the dictionary is various.
There are two different primary definitions of the word ‘risk,’ One means the situation of being in danger. The other means the consequence or the chance of being in danger.
The situation is similar to the word ‘safe' and ‘safety,' safe means being out of the dangerous situation, while safety is a condition of being safe.
5. War of talents
The world is suffering from short of talents.
Demographic(人口统计)forces: Increasing longevity(长寿), declining birthrates(低出生率), and the disproportionate(失衡) size of the post-war baby boom generation.
The change of economic nature demands more skilled employees: Globalisation, with increasing economic integration across nations, profoundly impacts labor supply and the talent war. Capital markets are vast and global and rapid advances in digital technology emerged.
Global competition and increasing mobility: People are more willing to relocate outside their home countries after graduation, particularly high-skilled group.
6. Decline of Bees
The sign of decline in number of bees
The drivers of these declines vary, depending on different species.
The loss of pollination could be huge and catastrophic, which was not yet been proved.
The positive side is that people are aware of this and are taking actions to fix it.
7. Ugly Buildings in London
The speaker mentioned some ugly buildings that can be seen in west London.
The negative impact of ugly architectures is more severe than bad books as these awful buildings may exist for hundreds of years.
However, the architect doesn't think those buildings are ugly because different people have different aesthetic perceptions.
After all, beauty is in the eyes of the beholder.
8. Employee competition
Competition can improve employees’ performance, motivate employees. Ranking is widely used in large organizations.
Top 10% people get bonus or rewards, cohorts in the middle have a feeling of fear and hope. This practice is predominant.
Companies use the ranking, this is a mistake, they think employees can make more productive and increase efficiency through competition, but it only works in really simple work.
Fill in the Blanks
1. Smart Card
Well in 2004 we integrated ticketing in South East Queensland, so we introduced a paper ticket that allowed you to travel across all the three modes in South East Queensland, so bus, train and ferry, and the second stage of integrated ticketing is the introduction of a Smart Card, and the Smart Card will enable people to store value so to put value on the card, and then to use the card for travelling around the system.
A majority of U.S. high school students say they get bored in class every day, and more than one out of five has considered dropping out, according to a survey released on Wednesday. The survey of 81 ,000 students in 26 states found two-thirds of high school students complain of boredom, usually because the subject matter was irrelevant or their teachers didn't seem to care about them.
…refine and enlarge the public views by passing them through the medium of a chosen body of citizens, whose wisdom may best discern the true interest of their country and whose patriotism and love of justice will be least likely to sacrifice it to temporary or partial considerations.
1. Mutually exclusive events are described (as) neither complementary nor opposing.
2. The report contains the most important information.
3. It is absolutely vital that you acknowledge all your sources.
4. Students have options to live in campus residences or apartment.
5. Climate change is becoming acceptable among a group of scientists.
6. They were struggling last year to make their service pay.
7. The business plan seminar includes an internship with a local firm.
8. Observers waited nervously and held a breath for the concert.
9. Those who are considering a career of marketing should attend the talk.(新)
10. The celebrated theory is still the source of controversies/controversy.
11. The application process is longer than expected.
12. You are required to complete the research paper by next Monday.
13. It is hard to anticipate all the characters that were in the act.
14. The artist/Artists ties/tied the conservative politicians, earned their/the roles of critics.
15. The chemistry building is located at the entrance of/to the campus.
1. The job of a manager
The job of a manager in the work place is to get things done through the employee.
In order to do this, the manager should be able to motivate its employees.
However, this easier said than done.
Motivation practice and theory are difficult, complex subjects touching on several disciplines.
2. Ne Tam (Monash student)
Mechanical engineering student Ne Tam is spending the first semester of this year studying at the University of California, Berkeley as part of the Monash Abroad program.
Ne, an international student from Shanghai, China, began her Monash journey at Monash Collage in October 2006.
There she completed a diploma that enabled her to enter Monash University as a second-year student.
Now in her third year of study, the Monash Abroad program will see her complete four units of study in the US before returning to Australia in May 2009.
During the 1920s and 1930s, great progress was made in the field of aviation, including the first transatlantic flight of Alcock and Brown in 1919, Charles Lindbergh's solo transatlantic flight. In 1927, and Charles Kingsford Smith's transpacific flight the following year.
One of the most successful designs of this period was the Douglas DC-3, which became the first airliner to be profitable carrying passengers exclusively, starting the modern era of passenger airline service.
By the beginning of World War II, many towns and cities had built airports, and there were numerous qualified pilots available.
The war brought many innovations to aviation, including the first jet aircraft and the first liquid-fueled rockets.
Historical records, coins, and other date-bearing objects can help - if they exist. But even prehistoric sites contain records - written in nature's hand.
The series of strata in an archaeological dig enables an excavator to date recovered objects relatively, if not absolutely.
However, when archaeologists want know the absolute date of a site, they can often go beyond simple stratigraphy.
For example, tree rings, Dendrochronology (literally, ―tree time‖) dates wooden artefacts by matching their ring patterns to known records, which, in some areas of the world, span several thousand years.