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Read Aloud:

1. Brain 

The brain is divided into two hemispheres, called the left and right hemispheres. Each hemisphere provided a different set of functions, behaviours, and controls. The right hemisphere is often called the creative side of the brain, while the left hemisphere is the logical or analytic side of the brain.

2. Vanilla

The uniquely scented flavor of vanilla is second only to chocolate in popularity on the world’s palate. It’s also the second most expensive spice after saffron. But highly labor-intensive cultivation methods and the plant’s temperamental life cycle and propagation mean production on a global scale is struggling to keep up with the increasing demand for the product.

3. Japanese tea ceremony

The Japanese tea ceremony is a tour influenced by Buddhism in which green tea is prepared and served to a small group of guests in a peaceful setting. (In Japan, tea ceremony is a ritual-like formalism in which green tea you prepare and serve to multiple guests in a tea full setting). The ceremony can take as long as four hours and there are many traditional gestures that both the server and the guest must perform.

4. Augustus

Augustus was given the powers of an absolute monarch, but he presented himself as the preserver of republican traditions. He treated the Senate, or state council, with great respect, and was made Consul year after year. He successfully reduced the political power of the army by retiring many soldiers, but giving them land or money to keep their loyalty.

5. MBA

Exhilarating, exhausting and intense, there are just some of the words used to describe doing an MBA, everyone's experience of doing MBA is, of course, different through denying that it's hard and demanding work whichever course you do. MBA is one of the fastest growing areas of studying in the UK so that must be a sustainable benefit against form in one pain.

6. Russia

Long isolated from Western Europe, Russia grew up without participating in the development like the Reformation that many Russians taking pride in their unique culture, find dubious value. Russia is, as a result, the most unusual member of the European family, if indeed it is European at all. The question is still open to debate, particularly among Russians themselves.

7. Shakespeare 

A young man from a small provincial town, a man without independent wealth, without powerful family connections and without a university education, moves to London in the late 1580's, and in a remarkably short time, became the greatest playwright. Not of his age alone but of all time. How is an achievement of this magnitude to be explained? How did Shakespeare become Shakespeare?

8. Fast Food

Hundreds of millions of American people eat fast food every day without giving it too much thought, unaware of the subtle and not so subtle ramifications of their purchases. They just grab their tray off the counter, find a table, take a seat, unwrap the paper, and dig in. The whole experience is transitory and soon forgotten.

9. Swans

Before European explorers had reached Australia, it was believed that all swans were white. Dutch mariner, Antonie Caen, was the first to be amazed at the sight of Australia’s Black swans on the Shark Bay in 1636. Explorer Willem de Vlamingh captured two of these creatures on Australia’s Swan River and returned with them to Europe to prove their existence.

10. Father 

Ever since I remembered, father woke up at five thirty every morning, made breakfast for us all and read a newspaper. After that, he would go to work. He worked as a writer. It was a long time before I realize he did this for a living.

11. Grand Canyon

The Grand Canyon is 277 miles long, up to 18 miles wide and attains a depth of over a mile. While the specific geologic processes and timing that formed the Grand Canyon are the subject of debate by geologists, recent evidence suggests the Colorado River established its course through the canyon at least 17 million years ago.

12. Introvert and extrovert

Introvert (or those of us with introverted tendencies) tends to recharge by spending time alone. They lose energy from being around people for long periods of time, particularly large crowds. extroverts, on the other hand, gain energy from other people. Extroverts actually find their energy is sapped when they spend too much time alone. They recharge by being social.

13. Lincoln’s 

Lincoln’s apparently radical change of mind about his war power to emancipate slaves was caused by the escalating scope of the war, which convinced him that any measure to weaken the Confederacy and strengthen the Union war effort was justifiable as a military necessity.

14. Plant 

Although it hails from a remote region of the western Himalayas, this plant now looks entirely at home on the banks of English rivers. Brought to the UK in 1839, it quickly escaped from Victorian gardens and colonized river banks and damp woodlands. Now it is spreading across Europe, New Zealand, Canada and the US.

15. Private Equity

It isn’t rare for private equity houses to hire grads fresh out of business school, but 9 times out of 10, the students who nab these jobs are the ones who had private equity experience under their belt before even starting their MBA program.

Repeat Sentence:

1. The US ranks twenty-second in foreign aid, given it as a percentage of GDP.

2. Residents hall is closed prior to the academic building closing time at the end of the semester.

3. When demand for the course rose, university authorities took on additional academic stuff.

4. Meeting with mentors can be scheduled for students who require additional support.

5. No more than four people can be in the lab at once.

6. When demand for the course rose, university authorities took on additional academic.

7. The library is located on the other side of the campus behind the student center.

8. To answer this complex question with a simple yes or no is absolutely impossible.

9. Additional information can be accessed from the website.

10. 39.5%  California residents don’t speak English at home.

11. Please sort and order the slides of the presentation according to public and speech time.

12. Organic food is growing without applying chemicals and artificial additives.

13. I would like tomato and cheese sandwich on with orange juice.

14. I used to have coffee with one sugar.

15. I didn’t understand the author’s point of view on immigration.

16. Number the beakers and put them away until tomorrow.

17. The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy.

18. Rules about breaks and lunch time vary from one company to next.

19. The psychology department is looking for volunteers to be involved in research projects.

20. The office opens on Monday and Thursday directly follow the freshman seminar.

Describe Image:



2. 流程图也比较高频 请大家练熟















(根据回忆出现graduate laboratory, elevator, entrance, office等单词)



标题为:The United Arab Emirates’ Flag and Jordan’s Flag



Retell Lecture:

1. Water on Mars

• In the past five years, the temperature of Mars has increased.

• The research conducted on the Mars indicates the prior existence of liquid water.

• The evidence is that researchers found several elements which are essential to form water, such as calcium carbonate, salt, mineral, and perchlorate.

• Consequently, we can speculate that there used to be water existed on Mars as liquid form and Mars may be a hospitable planet long time ago.

2. Non-governmental organization (NGO)

3. Bomb calorimeter

4. Monkey


5. Influence of climate change

6. Loggerhead Sea Turtles


7. Welsh Speaker

8. Dark Energy


9. The first Robots

音频地址:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dGPPjGqT6PA   时间:1:30 – 2:56


This is a kind of object that you’re probably all familiar with when you had the term robot, but I’m gonna show you the very, very first robots. These were the very first robots. They were characters in a play in the 1920s called Rossum’s Universal Robots and they, the play was written by Czech writer called Karel Capek. And basically, these robots, you know, people tend to think of robots as kind of cute cuddly toys or, you know, Hollywood depictions kind of devoid of politics. But the first robots were actually created and imagined in a time of absolute political turmoil. You just had the First World War, you know, it finished had a devastating impact across Europe and so people will kind and people are kind of reflecting on what does it mean to be human, what makes us human, those kinds of question. And this kind of context is what inspired Capek to kind of write this play. And interestingly, these robots being human, they are actually in the play assembled on a production line, a bit like the Ford manufacturing production line. So even though they are human, they are assembled and these robots are designed to labor, and that is their primary purpose in society.

10. Civilization

I have said before that you can’t have a civilization that doesn’t have art when we think about the great civilizations historically. All of them had a great production of culture and art because a society has built to observe itself and the sophistication of the great civilizations were their ability to look at themselves. And what allows a society to do that are the producers of art and culture with mirror back to the core of the society exactly. What is being produced at that moment? How people are thinking of themselves and how individuals are relating to the social structure at that time. Art is the vehicle through which we understand that. Were you to take away art, what would be that mirror? How would we see what we were about? How would we understand what was going on in Paris at the time of the Impressionists when people were learning to see in a completely different way? Pre-cinematography Pierre all of these things are just emerging and here are people looking at the world in a very different way, which was considered so radical at that time.

11. Immigration Controls

Now the economists’ calculated, it’s a back of the envelope calculation, that removing all immigration controls would double the size of the world economy, and even a small relaxation of immigration controls would lead to disproportionally big gains. Now for an ethical point of view, it’s hard to argue against a policy that will do so much to help people that are much poorer than ourselves. The famous Rand Study reckons that a typical immigrant who arrives in US ends up with $20.000 a year, that’s rough. It’s not just the migrants themselves who gain, it’s the countries they come from. Already, the migrants working for poor countries working in rich countries send home around 200 billion dollars a year, through formal channels, and about twice as that through informal channels. And that compares to the neat a hundred million dollars that Western governments give in aid. These remittances are not wasted on weapons or siphoned off into Swiss bank accounts; they go straight into the pockets of local people. They pay for food, clean water, and medicines, they help kids in school, they help start up new business.

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Summarise Written Text:

1. Parents control their children’s TV watching

Why and to what extent should parents control their children’s TV watching? There is certainly nothing inherently wrong with TV. The problem is how much television a child watches and what effect it has on his life. Research has shown that as the amount of time spent watching TV goes up, the amount of time devoted not only to homework and study but other important aspects of life such as social development and physical activities decreases. 

Television is bound to have its tremendous impact on a child, both in terms of how many hours a week he watches TV and of what he sees. When a parent is concerned about the effects of television, he should consider a number of things: what TV offers the child in terms of information and knowledge, how many hours a week a youngster his age should watch television, the impact of violence and sex, and the influence of commercials. 

What about the family as a whole? Is the TV set a central piece of furniture in your home! Is it flicked on the moment someone enters the empty house? Is it on during the daytime? Is it part of the background noise of your family life? Do you demonstrate by your own viewing that television should be watched selectively? 


Parents should control their children’s TV watching because how much television a child watches and what effect it has on his life, and when a parent is concerned about the effects of television, he should consider a number of things: what TV offers the child in terms of information and knowledge, how many hours a week a youngster his age should watch television, the impact of violence and sex, and the influence of commercials.

2. Parents’ own birth order

Parents' own birth order can become an issue when dynamics in the family they are raising replicate the family in which they were raised. Agati notes common examples, such as a firstborn parent getting into "raging battles" with a firstborn child. "Both are used to getting the last word. Each has to be right. But the parent has to be the grown-up and step out of that battle," he advises. 

When youngest children become parents, Agati cautions that because they "may not have had high expectations placed on them, they in turn may not see their kids for their abilities. “But he also notes that since youngest children tend to be more social, "youngest parents can be helpful to their firstborn, who may have a harder time with social situations. These parents can help their eldest kids loosen up and not be so hard on themselves. 

Mom Susan Ritz says her own birth order didn't seem to affect her parenting until the youngest of her three children, Julie, was born. Julie was nine years younger than Ritz's oldest, Joshua, mirroring the age difference between Susan and her own older brother. "I would see Joshua do to Julie what my brother did to me," she says of the taunting and teasing by a much older sibling. 

"I had to try not to always take Julie's side." Biases can surface no matter what your own birth position was, as Lori Silverstone points out. "As a middle myself, I can be harder on my older daughter. I recall my older sister hitting me," she says of her reactions to her daughters' tussles. 


Parents' own birth order can become an issue when dynamics in the family they are raising replicate the family in which they were raised, and when youngest children become parents, they may not have had high expectations placed on them, and youngest children tend to be more social, and biases can surface no matter what your own birth position was, as Lori Silverstone points out. (65words)

3. Ageing

We live in an ageing world. While this has been recognised for some time in developed countries, it is only recently that this phenomenon has been fully acknowledged. Global communication is "shrinking" the world, and global ageing is "maturing" it. The increasing presence of older persons in the world is making people of all ages more aware that we live in a diverse and multigenerational society. It is no longer possible to ignore ageing, regardless of whether one views it positively or negatively.

Demographers note that if current trends in ageing continue as predicted, a demographic revolution, wherein the proportions of the young and the old will undergo a historic crossover, will be felt in just three generations. This portrait of change in the world's population parallels the magnitude of the industrial revolution - traditionally considered the most significant social and economic breakthrough in the history of humankind since the Neolithic period. It marked the beginning of a sustained movement towards modern economic growth in much the same way that globalisation is today marking an unprecedented and sustained movement toward a "global culture". The demographic revolution, it is envisaged, will be at least as powerful. 

While the future effects are not known, a likely scenario is one where both the challenges as well as the opportunities will emerge from a vessel into which exploration and research, dialogue and debate are poured. Challenges arise as social and economic structures try to adjust to the simultaneous phenomenon of diminishing young cohorts with rising older ones, and opportunities present themselves in the sheer number of older individuals and the vast resources societies stand to gain from their contribution. 

This ageing of the population permeates all social, economic and cultural spheres. Revolutionary change calls for new, revolutionary thinking, which can position policy formulation and implementation on a sounder footing. In our ageing world, new thinking requires that we view ageing as a lifelong and society-wide phenomenon, not a phenomenon exclusively pertaining to older persons.


We live in an ageing world, and it is no longer possible to ignore ageing, and a demographic revolution will be felt in just three generations, and the demographic revolution will be powerful, and both the challenges as well as the opportunities will emerge, and revolutionary change calls for new, revolutionary thinking, which can position policy formulation and implementation on sounder footing. (62 words)

4. Malaysia

Malaysia is one of the most pleasant, hassle-free countries to visit in Southeast Asia. Aside from its gleaming 21st-century glass towers, it boasts some of the most superb beaches, mountains and national parks in the region. Malaysia is also launching its biggest-ever tourism campaign in an effort to lure 20 million visitors here this year.

Any tourist itinerary would have to begin in the capital, Kuala Lumpur, where you will find the Petronas Twin Towers, which once comprised the worlds tallest buildings and now hold the title of second-tallest. Both the 88-story towers soar 1,480 feet high and are connected by a sky-bridge on the 41st floor. The limestone temple Batu Caves, located 9 miles north of the city, have a 328-foot-high ceiling and feature ornate Hindu shrines, including a 141-foot-tall gold- painted statue of a Hindu deity. To reach the caves, visitors have to climb a steep flight of 272 steps. In Sabah state on Borneo island not to be confused with Indonesias Borneo you'll find the small mushroom-shaped Sipadan island, off the coast of Sabah, rated as one of the top five diving sites in the world. Sipadan is the only oceanic island in Malaysia, rising from a 2,300-foot abyss in the Celebes Sea. You can also climb Mount Kinabalu, the tallest peak in Southeast Asia, visit the Sepilok Orang Utan Sanctuary, go white-water rafting and catch a glimpse of the bizarre Proboscis monkey, a primate found only in Borneo with a huge pendulous nose, a characteristic pot belly and strange honking sounds.

While you're in Malaysia, consider a trip to Malacca. In its heyday, this southern state was a powerful Malay sultanate and a booming trading port in the region. Facing the Straits of Malacca, this historical state is now a place of intriguing Chinese streets, antique shops, old temples and reminders of European colonial powers. Another interesting destination is Penang, known as the Pearl of the Orient. This island off the northwest coast of Malaysia boasts of a rich Chinese cultural heritage, good food and beautiful beaches.


Malaysia is one of the most pleasant, hassle-free countries to visit in Southeast Asia, and any tourist itinerary would have to begin in the capital, Kuala Lumpur, and Sipadan is the only oceanic island in Malaysia, and you can also climb Mount Kinabalu, and Malacca was a powerful Malay sultanate and a booming trading port in the region, and Penang boasts of a rich Chinese cultural heritage, good food and beautiful beaches.

5. Beauty contest


Since Australians Jennifer Hawkins and Lauryn Eagle were crowned Miss Universe and Miss Teen International respectively, there has been a dramatic increase in interest in beauty pageants in this country. These wins have also sparked a debate as to whether beauty pageants are just harmless reminders of old-fashioned values or a throwback to the days when women were respected for how good they looked. 

Opponents argue that beauty pageants, whether its Miss Universe or Miss Teen International, are demeaning to women and out of sync with the times. They say they are nothing more than symbols of decline. 

In the past few decades Australia has taken more than a few faltering steps toward treating women with dignity and respect. Young women are being brought up knowing that they can do anything, as shown by inspiring role models in medicine such as 2003 Australian of the Year Professor Fiona Stanley. 

In the 1960s and 1970s, one of the first acts of the feminist movement was to picket beauty pageants on the premise that the industry promoted the view that it was acceptable to judge women on their appearance. Today many young Australian women are still profoundly uncomfortable with their body image, feeling under all kinds of pressures because they are judged by how they look. 

Almost all of the pageant victors are wafer thin, reinforcing the message that thin equals beautiful. This ignores the fact that men and women come in all sizes and shapes. In a country where up to 60% of young women are on a diet at any one time and 70% of school girls say they want to lose weight, despite the fact that most have a normal BMI, such messages are profoundly hazardous to the mental health of young Australians. 


Beauty pageants are harmless reminders of old-fashioned values or a throwback to the days when women were respected, and they are nothing more than symbols of decline, and Australia has taken more than a few faltering steps toward treating women with dignity and respect, and this ignores the fact that men and women come in all sizes and shapes, and such messages are hazardous to the mental health of young Australians.(72 words)

6. Electric car

Here's a term you're going to hear much more often: plug-in vehicle, and the acronym PEV. It's what you and many other people will drive to work in, ten years and more from now. At that time, before you drive off in the morning you will first unplug your car - your plugin vehicle. Its big on board batteries will have been fully charged overnight, with enough power for you to drive 50-100 kilometers through city traffic.

When you arrive at work you'll plug in your car once again, this time into a socket that allows power to flow form your car's batteries to the electricity grid. One of the things you did when you bought your car was to sign a contract with your favorite electricity supplier, allowing them to draw a limited amount of power from your car's batteries should they need to, perhaps because of a blackout, or very high wholesale spot power prices. The price you get for the power the distributor buys from your car would not only be most attractive to you, it would be a good deal for them too, their alternative being very expensive power form peaking stations. If, driving home or for some other reason your batteries looked like running flat, a relatively small, but quiet and efficient engine running on petrol, diesel or compressed natural gas, even bio-fuel, would automatically cut in, driving a generator that supplied the batteries so you could complete your journey.

Concerns over 'peak oil', increasing greenhouse gas emissions, and the likelihood that by the middle of this century there could be five times as many motor vehicles registered worldwide as there are now, mean that the world's almost total dependence on petroleum-based fuels for transport is, in every sense of the word, unsustainable.


Plug-in vehicle, known as the acronym PEV, is what you and many other people will drive to work in ten years and more from now, it will be unplugged before driving off, and its big onboard batteries will have been fully charged overnight, and you will plug in your car into a socket, and there will be an engine running if batteries was running flat, and petroleum-based fuels for transport is unsustainable. (72 words)

7. Nobel Peace Prize

This year’s Nobel Peace Prize justly rewards the thousands of scientists of the United Nations Climate Change Panel (the IPCC). These scientists are engaged in excellent, painstaking work that establishes exactly what the world should expect from climate change.

The other award winner, former US Vice President Al Gore, has spent much more time telling us what to fear. While the IPCC’s estimates and conclusions are grounded in careful study, Gore doesn’t seem to be similarly restrained.

Gore told the world in his Academy Award-winning movie (recently labeled “one-sided” and containing “scientific errors” by a British judge) to expect 20-foot sea-level rises over this century. He ignores the findings of his Nobel co-winners, the IPCC, who conclude that sea levels will rise between only a half-foot and two feet over this century, with their best expectation being about one foot. That’s similar to what the world experienced over the past 150 years.

Likewise, Gore agonizes over the accelerated melting of ice in Greenland and what it means for the planet, but overlooks the IPCC’s conclusion that, if sustained, the current rate of melting would add just three inches to the sea level rise by the end of the century. Gore also takes no notice of research showing that Greenland’s temperatures were higher in 1941 than they are today.

Gore also frets about the future of polar bears. He claims they are drowning as their icy habitat disappears. However, the only scientific study showing any such thing indicates that four polar bears drowned because of a storm.

The politician-turned-movie maker loses sleep over a predicted rise in heat-related deaths. There’s another side of the story that’s inconvenient to mention: rising temperatures will reduce the number of cold spells, which are a much bigger killer than heat. The best study shows that by 2050, heat will claim 400,000 more lives, but 1.8 million fewer will die because of cold. Indeed, according to the first complete survey of the economic effects of climate change for the world, global warming will actually save lives.


This year’s Nobel Peace Prize winner is the former US Vice President Al Gore, and Gore told the world in his Academy Award-winning movie to expect 20-foot sea-level rises over this century, and Gore agonises over the accelerated melting of ice in Greenland, and Gore agonises over the accelerated melting of ice in Greenland, and global warming will actually save lives. (64 words)

8. Overqualified workers 

If your recruiting efforts attract job applicants with too much experience a near certainty in this weak labour market you should consider a response that runs counter to most hiring managers MO: Don't reject those applicants out of hand.

Instead, take a closer look. New research shows that overqualified workers tend to perform better than other employees, and they don't quit any sooner. Furthermore, a simple managerial tactic empowerment can mitigate any dissatisfaction they may feel.

The prejudice against too-good employees is pervasive. Companies tend to prefer an applicant who is a perfect fit over someone who brings more intelligence, education, or experience than needed. On the surface, this bias makes sense: Studies have consistently shown that employees who consider themselves overqualified exhibit higher levels of discontent. For example, over-qualification correlated well with job dissatisfaction in a 2008 study of 156 call-centre reps by Israeli researchers Saul Fine and Baruch Nevo. And unlike discrimination based on age or gender, declining to hire overqualified workers is perfectly legal.

But even before the economic downturn, a surplus of overqualified candidates was a global problem, particularly in developing economies, where rising education levels are giving workers more skills than are needed to supply the growing service sectors. If managers can get beyond the conventional wisdom, the growing pool of too-good applicants is a great opportunity. Berrin Erdogan and Talya N. Bauer of Portland State University in Oregon found that overqualified workers' feelings of dissatisfaction can be dissipated by giving them autonomy in decision making. At stores where employees didn't feel empowered, over-educated workers expressed greater dissatisfaction than their colleagues did and were more likely to state an intention to quit. But that difference vanished where self-reported autonomy was high.


You should consider a response that runs counter to most hiring managers MO, and the prejudice against too-good employees is pervasive, and employees who consider themselves overqualified exhibit higher levels of discontent, but a surplus of overqualified candidates was a global problem, and overqualified workers' feelings of dissatisfaction can be dissipated by giving them autonomy in decision making.


1. It is important to maintain a right balance of your work and other respects of one’s life such as family and leisure sport. What is your opinion about this? Discuss with appropriate examples.

2. Parents should be held legally responsible for children’s acts. What is your opinion? Support it with personal examples.

3. Whether experiential learning (learning by doing) can work well in formal education. Do you agree or disagree?

4. Is it fair for universities to deduct students’ marks when their assignments are overdue?

How to solve this problem?

5. Design of buildings have positive or negative impact on people’s life and work?

6. Experience is more effective and useful than books and formal education. What is your opinion?

7. Large shopping malls are replacing small shops. What is your opinion about this? Discuss

with appropriate examples.

8. Is it positive for Students to learn with employment?

9. How widely of you think the problem spreads that people spend too much time on work than their personal life and experience time shortage? What problems will it cause?

10. Younger employees have more skills, knowledge and more motivated than older employees. To what extent do you agree or disagree, support your argument with your own experience. (新)

11. The advanced medical technology expands human’s life. Do you think it is a curse or blessing?

12. Government should create a better network of public transport available for everyone or build more roads owning population. 

13. Study needs time, peace and comfort, whereas employment needs the same thing. Someone says it is impossible to combine those two because one distracts one another. Do you think this is realistic in our life today? To what extent do you agree with it? Support your opinion with example.

14. Government promises continuous economic growth, but it’s actually an illusion. Some people think that governments should abandon this. Please talk about the validity and the implications.

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Fill in The Blanks: 

1. Wind

Wind is air moving around. Some winds can move as fast as a racing car, over 100 miles an hour. Winds can travel around the world. Wind can make you feel cold because you lose heat from your body faster when it is windy Weather forecasters need to know the speed and direction of the wind. the strength of wind is measured using the Beaufort scale from wind force when there is no wind, to wind force 12 which can damage houses and buildings and is called hurricane force.

2. Burger King

Drive down any highway, and you’ll see a proliferation of chain restaurants — most likely, if you travel long and far enough, you’ll see McDonald’s golden arches as well as signs for Burger King, Hardee’s, and Wendy’s, the “big four” of burgers. Despite its name, though, Burger King has fallen short of claiming the burger crown, unable to surpass market leader McDonalds’s No. 1 sales status. Always the bridesmaid and never the bride, Burger King remains No. 2. 

Worse yet, Burger King has experienced a six-year 22 percent decline in customer traffic, with its overall quality rating dropping while ratings for the other three contenders have increased. The decline has been attributed to inconsistent product quality and poor customer service. Although the chain tends to throw advertising dollars at the problem, an understanding of Integrated Marketing Communication theory would suggest that internal management problems (nineteen CEOs in fifty years) need to be rectified before a unified, long-term strategy can be put in place. 

The importance of consistency in brand image and messages, at all levels of communication, has become a basic tenet of IMC theory and practice. The person who takes the customer’s order must communicate the same message as Burger King’s famous tagline, “Have it your way,” or the customer will just buss up the highway to a chain restaurant that seems more consistent and, therefore, more reliable. 

3. Tomb of Tutankhamun

The last tourists may have been leaving the Valley of the Kings on the West Bank in Luxor but the area in front of the tomb of Tutankhamun remained far from deserted. Instead of the tranquillity that usually descends on the area in the evening it was a hive of activity. TV crews trailed masses of equipment, journalists milled and photographers held their cameras at the ready. The reason? For the first time since Howard Carter discovered the tomb in 1922 the mummy of Tutankhamun was being prepared for public display. Inside the subterranean burial chamber Egypt's archaeology supremo Zahi Hawass, accompanied by four Egyptologists, two restorers and three workmen, were slowly lifting the mummy from the golden sarcophagus where it has been rested -- mostly undisturbed – for more than 3,000 years. The body was then placed on a wooden stretcher and transported to its new home, a high- tech, climate-controlled plexi-glass showcase located in the outer chamber of the tomb where, covered in linen, with only the face and feet exposed, it now greets visitors.

4. Seatbelts

I am a cyclist and a motorist. I fasten my seatbelt when I drive and wear a helmet on my bike to reduce the risk of injury. I am convinced that these are prudent safety measures. I have persuaded many friends to wear helmets on the grounds that transplant surgeons call those without helmets, "donors on wheels”. But a book on 'Risk’ by my colleague John Adams has made me re-examine my convictions.

Adams has completely undermined my confidence in these apparently sensible precautions. What he has persuasively argued, particularly in relation to seat belts, is that the evidence that they do what they are supposed to do is very suspect. This is in spite of numerous claims that seat belts save many thousands of lives every year. Between 1970 and 1978 countries in which the wearing of seat bells is compulsory had on average about five percent road accident death than before the introduction of law. In the United Kingdom road deaths decreased steadily about seven thousand a year in 1972 to just over four thousand in 1989. There is no evidence in the trend for any effect of the seat belt law that was introduced in 1983. there’s actually evidence that the number of cyclists and pedestals killed increased by about ten percent That twice as many children were killed in road accidents in 1922 as now must not be taken as evidence that there is less risk when children play in the street today It almost certainly reflects the care taken by parents in keeping children off the streets.

Re-order Paragraph:

1. $300-house 

 When Vijay Govindarajan and Christian Sarkar wrote a blog entry on Harvard Business Review in August 2010 mooting the idea of a “$300-house for they were merely expressing a suggestion.”

 Of course, the idea we present here is an experiment,” wrote Prof Govindarajan, a professor of international business at the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth and Mr Sarkar, a marketing consultant who works on environmental issues an almost apologetic disclaimer for having such a “far-out” idea.

 Who could create a house for $300 and if it was possible, why hadn’t it been done before?

 Nonetheless, they closed their blog with a challenge: “We ask chief executives, governments, NGOs, foundations: Are there any takers?”

2. Data

 Another common mistake is to ignore or rule out data which do not support the hypothesis. Ideally, the experimenter is open to the possibility that the hypothesis is correct or incorrect.

 Sometimes, however, a scientist may have a strong belief that the hypothesis is true (or false) or feels internal or external pressure to get a specific result.

 In that case, there may be a psychological tendency to find "something wrong," such as systematic effects, with data which do not support the scientist's expectations, while data which do agree with those expectations may not be checked as carefully.

 The lesson is that all data must be handled in the same way.

3. Students Go Overseas

 All over the world students are changing countries for their university studies.

 They don’t all have the same reasons for going or for choosing a particular place to study.

 They may choose a university because of its interesting courses or perhaps because they like the country and its language.

 Some students go overseas because they love travel.

 Whatever the reason, thousands of students each year make their dreams of a university education come true.

4. The European Union

 The European Union has two big fish problems.

 One is that, partly as a result of its failure to manage them properly, its own fisheries can no longer meet European demand.

 The other is that its governments won’t confront their fishing lobbies and decommission all the surplus boats.

 The EU has tried to solve both problems by sending its fishermen to West Africa. Since 1979 it has struck agreements with the government of Senegal, granting our fleets access to its waters.

 As a result, Senegal’s marine ecosystem has started to go the same way as ours.

5. Railway

 Ever since the completion of the Great Western Railway, in the 1840s, intrigue has swirled around the Box Tunnel, a long, steep bypass near Bath, England.

 The question was this: did the railway’s creator, Isambard Kingdom Brunel, really have the tunnel carved in such a way that when the sun rose on his birthday—April 9th—it would be flooded with light?

 This past Sunday, April 9th, the railway’s current engineers decided to test the rumor once and for all. They weren’t disappointed.

 “When you look from the east portal, the cutting provides a lovely V-shape,” communications manager Paul Gentleman told the Guardian.

 While the west side’s view wasn’t quite so impressive, the engineers generously chalked that up to centuries of dirt and grime.

更多预测请参阅完整版 1月PTE高频预测.pdf



Summarise Spoken Text:

1. Amory Lovins (Mr Green)

 A man named Amory. Nobody knows him in the classroom, He has a consulting company and lives in a house built on a mountain.

 He spent 30 years thinking about ways to save energy and solved problems with technologies that already existed.

 People regarded him as genius. He has an unusual character with a wide range of knowledge, but he's not an academic.

 A female writer wrote a book about him named Mr. Green.

2. Decline of Bees

The sign of decline in number of bees

 The drivers of these declines vary, depending on different species.

 The loss of pollination could be huge and catastrophic, which was not yet been proved.

 The positive side is that people are aware of this and are taking actions to fix it.

3. Ugly Buildings in London 

The speaker mentioned some ugly buildings that can be seen in west London. 

 The negative impact of ugly architectures is more severe than bad books as these awful buildings may exist for hundreds of years. 

 However, the architect doesn't think those buildings are ugly because different people have different aesthetic perceptions. 

 After all, beauty is in the eyes of the beholder. 

4. Big Bang Theory – Cosmology

 Studying the cosmology of the universe is amazing. 

 Big bang happened around ten to twenty billion years ago. 

 A recently detailed measure indicates that big bang happened around 13.8 billion years ago, instead of 13 or 14 billion years.

 The universe has been on a continuous changing status ever since. Even when the universe started is known, we still need to understand how it developed.

 Big bang believed that all distant galaxies and clusters are receding away from our vantage point with an apparent velocity proportional to their distance.

5. Australian housing

 Economic growth of the society

 Affordable mortgage rates

 Increased immigration leads to higher number of housing required while suppliers remain unchanged.

 Increased purchasing power of buyers.

6. Environmental law

 British government launched the environmental law long before at the time of Charles the Second in order to control the impact of human activities on environment.

 However, the enforcement of environmental law was not well-established.

 Later, during the time of Industrial Revolution, British government reinforced the environment law to punish those companies who applied the Adam Smith theory to increase their profitability.

 Managers were unsatisfied, because companies had to pay more money to ensure the health of their employees under the environmental law, which made companies less competitive in the market.

7. War of talents

The world is suffering from short of talents.

 Demographic(人口统计)forces: Increasing longevity(长寿), declining birthrates(低出生率), and the disproportionate(失衡) size of the post-war baby boom generation.

 The change of economic nature demands more skilled employees: Globalisation, with increasing economic integration across nations, profoundly impacts labor supply and the talent war. Capital markets are vast and global and rapid advances in digital technology emerged.

 Global competition and increasing mobility: People are more willing to relocate outside their home countries after graduation, particularly high-skilled group.

8. Global warming/climate change

Climate change has become a severe problem which caused by increased carbon dioxide and other discharge of the greenhouse emissions.

 The increase of population, limited resources and poverty will accelerate environmental problem

 People cannot take the risks of ignoring scientists’ prediction.

 Commercial organisations and governments should take the responsibility and actions.

9. The Definition of Risk

 The definition of words from the dictionary is various. 

 There are two different primary definitions of the word ‘risk,’ One means the situation of being in danger. The other means the consequence or the chance of being in danger. 

 The situation is similar to the word ‘safe' and ‘safety,' safe means being out of the dangerous situation, while safety is a condition of being safe.

10. Non-verbal language(description)

 Symbolic language is a layer of computer

 Why involve it? Because we need to communicate. Language is a good example: people use sign language to ask for help.

 It is good to use hand while communicating.

 Non-verbal communication plays an important role in communicating with others.

 E.g. Pterosaur(翼⻰), facial expressions, gestures, postures, presentations in job interviews.

Fill in the Blanks

1. Smart Card

Well in 2004 we integrated ticketing in South East Queensland, so we introduced a paper ticket that allowed you to travel across all the three modes in South East Queensland, so bus, train and ferry, and the second stage of integrated ticketing is the introduction of a Smart Card, and the Smart Card will enable people to store value so to put value on the card, and then to use the card for travelling around the system.


http://mpegmedia.abc.net.au/rn/podcast/2006/12/bbg_20061210.mp3 [37:16-37:43] 

2. William Shakespeare

For all his fame and celebration, William Shakespeare remains a mysterious figure with regards to personal history. There are just two primary sources for information on the Bard: his works, and various legal and church documents that have survived from Elizabethan times. Naturally, there are many gaps in this body of information, which tells us little about Shakespeare the man.


Nutrients, months, subsiding, discuss, sociable, depth, shallow

4. Getting bored in class

A majority of U.S. high school students say they get bored in class every day, and more than one out of five has considered dropping out, according to a survey released on Wednesday. The survey of 81 ,000 students in 26 states found two-thirds of high school students complain of boredom, usually because the subject matter was irrelevant or their teachers didn't seem to care about them.(注:26写数字即可)

5. Foreshadow

Now that story's been scotched, as only part of contingency planning. But it was a symptom of the dramatic turn of events in South Australia, and it flushed out other remarks from water academics and people like Tim Flannery, indicating that things were really much worse than had been foreshadowed, even earlier this year.

So is Adelaide, let alone some whole regions of South Australia, in serious bother? Considering that the vast amount of its drinking water comes from the beleaguered Murray, something many of us outside the State may not have quite realised. Is their predicament something we have to face up to as a nation?


subscribe, electronically, search, listed

7. 其他高频词汇:

Intensive, coercive, aftermath, dead, dependence, growing, occurring, accumulating, automatic, nutrition, intensive, nutrients, social, whatever, ultimately, radically, consciousness, critically, similar, conversion, Atlantic, spirit, movement, psychological, neighbor, neighboring/neighbouring, generation, factory, nitrogen, biology, alphabet, subscribed, operational, galaxies, intelligent, difficulty, rare, followers, introduced, behalf, primarily, elementary, exploring, intentional, intentionally, subsidize, empathy, professionally, sculpture, emulation, emit, problems, campaign, spotted, restore, thick, lays, philosophy, relying, beneath, traditionally, weird, naval, dividend, permanent, paradox, forecast, extreme, subordinate

Write from Dictation:

1. A recent article shows a number of interesting experiments.

2. Animals raised in captivity behave differently from their wild counterparts.

3. Architectural numbers vary in that interesting experiment(s).

4. Assignments should be submitted to the department before the deadline.

5. Before submitting your assignment, your advisor must approve your application.

6. Behind the garage is a secret storage room. /Behind the garage, there is a flat cart driven by mules. (这道题根据大家回忆较难,请复习和考试的时候注意)

7. Celebrate theory is still the source of controversies.

8. Climate change is becoming acceptable among a group of scientists.

9. Clinical placement for nursing will prepare students for professional practice.

10. Control systems in manufacturing require a high level of accuracy.

11. Evaluation forms are reviewed by the university personnel.

12. Everyone must evacuate the premises during the fire drill.

13. Free campus tours run daily in summer for prospective students.

14. If finance is a cause of concern, scholarships may be available.

15. It is hard to anticipate all the characters that were in the act.

16. Many of the graduates of journalism get jobs in the communication field.

17. Mutually exclusive events are described (as) neither complementary nor opposing.

18. Native speaker’s language is exempt from the language test/their own native language.

19. Participants are initially selected from a range of foundation subjects.

20. Radio is a popular form of entertainment throughout the world.

21. Review all resources before drawing your conclusion.

22. Some of the features are part of previous research/system.

23. Student concession cards need to be obtained by completing an application form.

24. Students were instructed to submit their assignments by Friday.

25. The aerial photograph was promptly registered for thoroughly evaluations.

26. The city’s founder created a set of rules that became to law.

27. The commissioner will portion funds for the authorities.

28. The following lecture on economic policy has been cancelled.

29. The library holds a substantial collection of materials on economic history.

30. The massive accumulation of data is commuted into a convertible argument. / The massive accumulation of data is converted into a communicable argument.

更多预测请参阅完整版 1月PTE高频预测.pdf









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