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【考前必刷】PTE二月上半旬高频,真题预测!

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最近学员们都表示机经的命中率很高哦

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01

Speaking

Read Aloud:

1. Marketing Management

For any marketing course that requires the development of a marketing plan, such as Marketing Management, Marketing Strategy and Principles of Marketing, this is the only planning handbook that guides students through step by step creation of a customized marketing plan while offering commercial software to aid in the process.


2. Yellow 

Yellow is the most optimistic colour, yet surprisingly, people lose their tempers most often in yellow rooms and babies cry more in them. The reason may be that yellow is the hardest colour on the eye. On the other hand, it speeds metabolism and enhances concentration; think of yellow legal pads and post-it notes.


3. Father 

Ever since I remembered, father woke up at five thirty every morning, made breakfast for us all and read newspaper. After that he would go to work. He worked as a writer. It was a long time before I realize he did this for a living.


4. Fast Food

Hundreds of millions of American people eat fast food every day without giving it too much thought, unaware of the subtle and not so subtle ramifications of their purchases. They just grab their tray off the counter, find a table, take a seat, unwrap the paper, and dig in. The whole experience is transitory and soon forgotten.


5. Legal Writing

Legal writing is usually less discursive than writing in other humanities subjects, and precision is more important than variety. Sentence structure should not be too complex; it is usually unnecessary to make extensive use of adjectives or adverbs, and consistency of terms is often required.


6. Population Growth

How quickly is the world’s population growing? In the United States and other developed countries, the current growth rate is very low. In most developing countries, the human population is growing at a rate of 3 people per second. Because of this bustling growth rate, the human population is well on its way to reaching 9 billion within lifetime.


7. Slang

Australians do speak English, however, for some tourists and travelers, it can be difficult to understand the slang. Also, the links between Australian and American English were seen to be very tenuous. At least some colloquialisms in Australian English does not exist in other types of English.


8. Vanilla

The uniquely scented flavor of vanilla is second only to chocolate in popularity on the world’s palate. It’s also the second most expensive spice after saffron. But highly labor intensive cultivation methods and the plant’s temperamental life cycle and propagation mean production on a global scale is struggling to keep up with the increasing demand for the product.


9. Good Written Note

In classes, your teachers will talk about topics that your you are studying. The information that they provide will be important to know when you take tests. You must be able to take good written notes from what your teacher say.


10. Japanese tea ceremony

The Japanese tea ceremony is a tour influenced by Buddhism in which green tea is prepared and served to a small group of guests in a peaceful setting. (In Japan, tea ceremony is a ritual-like formalism in which green tea you prepare and serve to multiple guests in a tea full setting). The ceremony can take as long as four hours and there are many traditional gestures that both the server and the guest must perform.


Repeat Sentence:

1. The gap between the rich and the poor was not decreased rapidly as expected.

2. In market, short time thought often lead to disaster.

3. Participants were not performing an actual purchase.

4. The website interface represents the stimulus that influence consumer’s decision making.

5. Diagnosis is not a discrete or limited process.

6. This essay examined the use of computer in the science classroom.

7. A science-based approach is vital for effective advancements.

8. A key feature in drug development is examination of the pharmacological effects.

9. This process has enabled the rational identification of core machinery.

10. Genetic and biochemical analyses have generated a detailed portfolio of mechanisms.

11. Sort and order your slides of presentation according to topic and speech time.

12. The equipment is on the back of the building.

13. Acupuncture is a technique involved in traditional Chinese medicine.


Describe Image:


*常规的柱状图、饼图、折线图、图表题依旧很高频,注意练熟

1.


2. 


3.


4. 


5. 

6. 

标题为:The United Arab Emirates’ Flag and Jordan’s Flag


7.


8.

9. 


10.


11.

12.

 

13.

 

14.


Retell Lecture:

1.Water on Mars

·  In the past five years, the temperature ofMars has increased.

· The research conducted on the Mars indicatesthe prior existence of liquid water.

· The evidence is that researchers foundseveral elements which are essential to form water, such as calcium carbonate,salt, mineral, and perchlorate.

·  Consequently, we can speculate that thereused to be water existed on Mars as liquid form and Mars may be a hospitableplanet long time ago.

 

2.Bomb calorimeter


3. Monkey

 

4. Water on Mars

• In the past five years, the temperature of Mars has increased.

• The research conducted on the Mars indicates the prior existence of liquid water.

• The evidence is that researchers found several elements which are essential to form water, such as calcium carbonate, salt, mineral, and perchlorate.

• Consequently, we can speculate that there used to be water existed on Mars as liquid form and Mars may be a hospitable planet long time ago.



5. The first Robots

音频地址:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dGPPjGqT6PA   时间:1:30 – 2:56

参考原文:

This is a kind of object that you’re probably all familiar with when you had the term robot, but I’m gonna show you the very, very first robots. These were the very first robots. They were characters in a play in the 1920s called Rossum’s Universal Robots and they, the play was written by Czech writer called Karel Capek. And basically, these robots, you know, people tend to think of robots as kind of cute cuddly toys or, you know, Hollywood depictions kind of devoid of politics. But the first robots were actually created and imagined in a time of absolute political turmoil. You just had the First World War, you know, it finished had a devastating impact across Europe and so people will kind and people are kind of reflecting on what does it mean to be human, what makes us human, those kinds of question. And this kind of context is what inspired Capek to kind of write this play. And interestingly, these robots being human, they are actually in the play assembled on a production line, a bit like the Ford manufacturing production line. So even though they are human, they are assembled and these robots are designed to labor, and that is their primary purpose in society.

 

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02

Writing


Summarise Written Text:

1. Cow and grass 

The co-evolutionary relationship between cows and grass is one of nature's under-appreciated wonders; it also happens to be the key to understanding just about everything about modern meat.  


For the grasses, which have evolved to withstand the grazing of ruminants, the cow maintains and expands their habitat by preventing trees and shrubs from gaining a foothold and hogging the sunlight; the animal also spreads grass seed, plants it with his hooves, and then fertilises it with his manure. 

In exchange for these services the grasses offer ruminants a plentiful and exclusive supply of lunch. For cows (like sheep, bison, and other ruminants) have evolved the special ability to convert grass— which single-stomached creatures like us can't digest—into high-quality protein. They can do this because they possess what is surely the most highly evolved digestive organ in nature: the rumen. About the size of a medicine ball, the organ is essentially a forty-five-gallon fermentation tank in which a resident population of bacteria dines on grass. 


参考答案:

The co-evolutionary relationship between cows and grass is a wonder, and grasses have evolved to withstand the grazing of ruminants, and cow maintains and expands their habitat, and cows have evolved the special ability to convert grass, and single-stomached creatures like us can't digest into high-quality protein because they possess what is surely the most highly evolved digestive organ in nature: the rumen.


2. Parents control their children’s TV watching

Why and to what extent should parents control their children’s TV watching? There is certainly nothing inherently wrong with TV. The problem is how much television a child watches and what effect it has on his life. Research has shown that as the amount of time spent watching TV goes up, the amount of time devoted not only to homework and study but other important aspects of life such as social development and physical activities decreases. 


Television is bound to have it tremendous impact on a child, both in terms of how many hours a week he watches TV and of what he sees. When a parent is concerned about the effects of television, he should consider a number of things: what TV offers the child in terms of information and knowledge, how many hours a week a youngster his age should watch television, the impact of violence and sex, and the influence of commercials. 


What about the family as a whole? Is the TV set a central piece of furniture in your home! Is it flicked on the moment someone enters the empty house? Is it on during the daytime? Is it part of the background noise of your family life? Do you demonstrate by your own viewing that television should be watched selectively? 


参考答案:

Parents should control their children’s TV watching because how much television a child watches and what effect it has on his life, and when a parent is concerned about the effects of television, he should consider a number of things: what TV offers the child in terms of information and knowledge, how many hours a week a youngster his age should watch television, the impact of violence and sex, and the influence of commercials.


3. Tiny frog found in Mexico

A miner in the state of Chiapas found a tiny tree frog that has been preserved in amber for 25 million years, a researcher said. If authenticated, the preserved frog would be the first of its kind found in Mexico, according to David Grimaldi, a biologist and curator at the American Museum of Natural History, who was not involved in the find.


The chunk of amber containing the frog, less than half an inch long, was uncovered by a miner in Mexicos southern Chiapas state in 2005 and was bought by a private collector, who loaned it to scientists for study. A few other preserved frogs have been found in chunks of amber a stone formed by ancient tree sap mostly in the Dominican Republic. Like those, the frog found in Chiapas appears to be of the genus Craugastor, whose descendants still inhabit the region, said biologist Gerardo Carbot of the Chiapas Natural History and Ecology Institute. Carbot announced the discovery this week.


The scientist said the frog lived about 25 million years ago, based on the geological strata where the amber was found. Carbot would like to extract a sample from the frogs remains in hopes of finding DNA that could identify the particular species, but doubts the owner would let him drill into the stone.


参考答案:

A miner in the state of Chiapas found a tiny tree frog has been preserved in amber for 25 million years, which would be the first of its kind found in Mexico, and it was bought by a private collector, and Carbot would like to extract a sample from the frogs remains in hopes of finding DNA that could identify the particular species, but doubts the owner would let him drill into the stone. (74 words)


4. Wine Prohibition 

In 1920, the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution created yet another setback for the American wine industry. The National Prohibition Act, also known as the Volstead Act, prohibited the manufacture, sale, transportation, importation, exportation, delivery, or possession of intoxicating liquors for beverage purpose. Prohibition, which continued for thirteen years, nearly destroyed what had become a thriving and national industry. 


One of the loopholes in the Volstead Act allowed for the manufacture and sale of sacramental wine, medicinal wines for sale by pharmacists with a doctors’ prescription, and medicinal wine tonics (fortified wines) sold without prescription. Perhaps more important, Prohibition allowed anyone to produce up to two hundred gallons yearly of fruit juice or cider. The fruit juice, which was sometimes made into concentrate, was ideal for making wine. People would buy grape concentrate from California and have it shipped to the East Coast. The top of the container was stamped in big, bold letters: caution: do not add sugar or yeast or else fermentation will take place! Some of this yield found its way to bootleggers throughout America who did just that. But not for long, because the government stepped in and banned the sale of grape juice, preventing illegal wine production. Vineyards stopped being planted, and the American wine industry came to a halt. 


参考答案:

The National Prohibition Act, also known as the Volstead Act, prohibited the manufacture, sale, transportation, importation, exportation, delivery, or possession of intoxicating liquors for beverage purpose, and there are loopholes, and government stepped in and banned the sale of grape juice, preventing illegal wine production, and American wine industry came to a halt.


5. Malaysia

Malaysia is one of the most pleasant, hassle-free countries to visit in Southeast Asia. Aside from its gleaming 21st century glass towers, it boasts some of the most superb beaches, mountains and national parks in the region. Malaysia is also launching its biggest-ever tourism campaign in effort to lure 20 million visitors here this year.


Any tourist itinerary would have to begin in the capital, Kuala Lumpur, where you will find the Petronas Twin Towers, which once comprised the worlds tallest buildings and now hold the title of second-tallest. Both the 88-story towers soar 1,480 feet high and are connected by a sky-bridge on the 41st floor. The limestone temple Batu Caves, located 9 miles north of the city, have a 328-foot-high ceiling and feature ornate Hindu shrines, including a 141-foot-tall gold- painted statue of a Hindu deity. To reach the caves, visitors have to climb a steep flight of 272 steps. In Sabah state on Borneo island not to be confused with Indonesias Borneo you'll find the small mushroom-shaped Sipadan island, off the coast of Sabah, rated as one of the top five diving sites in the world. Sipadan is the only oceanic island in Malaysia, rising from a 2,300-foot abyss in the Celebes Sea. You can also climb Mount Kinabalu, the tallest peak in Southeast Asia, visit the Sepilok Orang Utan Sanctuary, go white-water rafting and catch a glimpse of the bizarre Proboscis monkey, a primate found only in Borneo with a huge pendulous nose, a characteristic pot belly and strange honking sounds.


While you're in Malaysia, consider a trip to Malacca. In its heyday, this southern state was a powerful Malay sultanate and a booming trading port in the region. Facing the Straits of Malacca, this historical state is now a place of intriguing Chinese streets, antique shops, old temples and reminders of European colonial powers. Another interesting destination is Penang, known as the Pearl of the Orient. This island off the northwest coast of Malaysia boasts of a rich Chinese cultural heritage, good food and beautiful beaches.


 参考答案:

Malaysia is one of the most pleasant, hassle-free countries to visit in Southeast Asia, and any tourist itinerary would have to begin in the capital, Kuala Lumpur, and Sipadan is the only oceanic island in Malaysia, and you can also climb Mount Kinabalu, and Malacca was a powerful Malay sultanate and a booming trading port in the region, and Penang boasts of a rich Chinese cultural heritage, good food and beautiful beaches.


6. Beauty contest

(根据最近考到的同学回忆并不完全一样,但是大意相同。)

Since Australians Jennifer Hawkins and Lauryn Eagle were crowned Miss Universe and Miss Teen International respectively, there has been a dramatic increase in interest in beauty pageants in this country. These wins have also sparked a debate as to whether beauty pageants are just harmless reminders of old-fashioned values or a throwback to the days when women were respected for how good they looked. 


Opponents argue that beauty pageants, whether its Miss Universe or Miss Teen International, are demeaning to women and out of sync with the times. They say they are nothing more than symbols of decline. 


In the past few decades Australia has taken more than a few faltering steps toward treating women with dignity and respect. Young women are being brought up knowing that they can do anything, as shown by inspiring role models in medicine such as 2003 Australian of the Year Professor Fiona Stanley. 


In the 1960s and 1970s, one of the first acts of the feminist movement was to picket beauty pageants on the premise that the industry promoted the view that it was acceptable to judge women on their appearance. Today many young Australian women are still profoundly uncomfortable with their body image, feeling under all kinds of pressures because they are judged by how they look. 


Almost all of the pageant victors are wafer thin, reinforcing the message that thin equals beautiful. This ignores the fact that men and women come in all sizes and shapes. In a country where up to 60% of young women are on a diet at any one time and 70% of school girls say they want to lose weight, despite the fact that most have a normal BMI, such messages are profoundly hazardous to the mental health of young Australians. 


参考答案:

Beauty pageants are harmless reminders of old-fashioned values or a throwback to the days when women were respected, and they are nothing more than symbols of decline, and Australia has taken more than a few faltering steps toward treating women with dignity and respect, and this ignores the fact that men and women come in all sizes and shapes, and such messages are hazardous to the mental health of young Australians.(72 words)


7. Electric car

Here's a term you're going to hear much more often: plug-in vehicle, and the acronym PEV. It's what you and many other people will drive to work in, ten years and more from now. At that time, before you drive off in the morning you will first unplug your car - your plugin vehicle. Its big on board batteries will have been fully charged overnight, with enough power for you to drive 50-100 kilometers through city traffic.


When you arrive at work you'll plug in your car once again, this time into a socket that allows power to flow form your car's batteries to the electricity grid. One of the things you did when you bought your car was to sign a contract with your favorite electricity supplier, allowing them to draw a limited amount of power from your car's batteries should they need to, perhaps because of a blackout, or very high wholesale spot power prices. The price you get for the power the distributor buys from your car would not only be most attractive to you, it would be a good deal for them too, their alternative being very expensive power form peaking stations. If, driving home or for some other reason your batteries looked like running flat, a relatively small, but quiet and efficient engine running on petrol, diesel or compressed natural gas, even bio-fuel, would automatically cut in, driving a generator that supplied the batteries so you could complete your journey.

Concerns over 'peak oil', increasing greenhouse gas emissions, and the likelihood that by the middle of this century there could be five times as many motor vehicles registered worldwide as there are now, mean that the world's almost total dependence on petroleum-based fuels for transport is, in every sense of the word, unsustainable.


参考答案:

Plug-in vehicle, known as the acronym PEV, is what you and many other people will drive to work in ten years and more from now, it will be unplugged before driving off, and its big onboard batteries will have been fully charged overnight, and you will plug in your car into a socket, and there will be an engine running if batteries was running flat, and petroleum-based fuels for transport is unsustainable. (72 words)


Essay:

1. How widely of you think the problem spreads that people spend too much time on work than their personal life and experience time shortage? What problems will it cause?

2. Governments and international institution are faced with many global problems. What these problems could be? Measure?

3. The advanced medical technology expands human’s life. Do you think it is a curse or blessing?

4. Do you think cashless society is realistic and why? What are the advantages and disadvantages?

5. Parents should be held legally responsible for children’s acts. What is your opinion? Support it with personal examples.

6. Which one is better, Textbook library or new digital material in university.

7. The role of a library in keeping books is obsolete. So universities should use digital media. What is your opinion? discuss advantages and disadvantages.

8. Is it positive for students to learn with employment?

9. Government should create better network of public transport available for everyone or build more roads owning population.

10. Study needs time, peace and comfort, whereas employment needs the same thing. Someone says it is impossible to combine those two because one distracts one another. Do you think this is realistic in our life today? To what extent do you agree with it? Support your opinion with example.

11. Design of buildings have positive or negative impact on people’s life and work?

12. Experience is more effective and useful than books and formal education. What is your opinion?

13. It is the only way to reduce air pollution by increasing the price of fuel of vehicles.

14. Education should teach us ethics and life values that will be practical for future employment. What is your opinion?

15. Journalist is one of the most difficult jobs in the world. What’s your opinion?


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03

Reading

Fill in The Blanks: 

1. America’s Skies

By 2025, government experts say America’s skies will swarm with three times as many planes, and not just the kind of traffic flying today. There will be thousands of tiny jets, seating six or fewer, at airliner altitudes, competing for space with remotely operated drones that need help avoiding midair collisions, and with commercially operated rockets carrying satellites and tourist into space.


2. Dogs

A DOG may be man's best friend. But man is not always a dog's. Over the centuries selective breeding has pulled at the canine body shape to produce what is often a grotesque distortion of the underlying wolf. Indeed, some of these distortions are, when found in people, regarded as pathologies.

Dog breeding does, though, offer a chance to those who would like to understand how body shape is controlled. The ancestry of pedigree pooches is well recorded, their generation time is short and their litter size reasonably large, so there is plenty of material to work with. Moreover, breeds are, by definition, inbred, and this simplifies genetic analysis. Those such as Elaine Ostrander, of America's National Human Genome Research Institute, who wish to identify the genetic basis of the features of particular pedigrees thus have an ideal experimental animal. 

https://www.economist.com/node/13139635


3. The Texas Cosmology Centre

A new interdisciplinary centre for the study of the frontiers of the universe, from the tiniest subatomic particle to the largest chain of galaxies, has been formed at The University of Texas at Austin. The Texas Cosmology Centre will be a way for the university's departments of Astronomy and Physics to collaborate on research that concerns them both.

“This centre will bring the two departments together in an area where they overlap--in the physics of the very early universe,” said Dr. Neal Evans, Astronomy Department chair.

Astronomical observations have revealed the presence of dark matter and dark energy, discoveries that challenge our knowledge of fundamental physics. And today's leading theories in physics involve energies so high that no Earth-bound particle accelerator can test them. They need the universe as their laboratory.

Dr. Steven Weinberg, Nobel laureate and professor of physics at the university, called the Centre’s advent “a very exciting development” for that department.

https://news.utexas.edu/2009/03/17/cosmology


4. Jean Piaget

Jean Piaget, the pioneering Swiss philosopher and psychologist, spent much of his professional life listening to children, watching children and poring over the reports of 28 researchers around the world who were doing the same. He found, to put it most succinctly, that children don’t think like grownups. After thousands of interactions with young people often barely old enough to talk, Piaget began to suspect that behind their cute and seemingly illogical utterances were thought processes that had their own kind of order and their own special logic.

Einstein called it a discovery "so simple that only a genius could have thought of it." Piaget's insight opened a new window into the inner workings of the mind. By the end of a wide ranging and remarkably prolific research career that spanned nearly 75 years from his first scientific publication at age 10 to work still in progress when he died at 84


5. The University of Maryland

The University of Maryland boasts 78 academic programs ranked in the top 25 nationally and 29 academic programs in the top 10 according to U.S. News and World report. By drawing top-notch faculty, attracting the brightest students and investing in the quality of our academic programs, we are a force to reckon with on a national basis.


6. Clones

Clones of an Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) in the Bronx and other city spots grew to double the biomass of clones planted outside small towns upstate or on Long Island, says Jillian Gregg, now of the Environmental Protection Agency’s western-ecology division in Corvallis, Ore. The growth gap comes from ozone damage, she and her New York colleagues report. Ozone chemists have known that concentrations may spike skyscraper high in city air, but during a full 24 hours, rural trees actually get a higher cumulative ozone exposure from urban pollution that blows in and lingers. A series of new experiments now shows that this hang-around ozone is the overwhelming factor in tree growth, the researchers say in the July 10 Nature. “This study has profound importance in showing us most vividly that rural areas pay the price for urban pollution,” says Stephen R Long of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. “This work should be a wake-up call,” he adds.


Re-order Paragraph:

1. Students Go Overseas

All over the world students are changing countries for their university studies.

They don’t all have the same reasons for going or for choosing a particular place to study.

They may choose a university because of its interesting courses or perhaps because they like the country and its language.

Some students go overseas because they love travel.

Whatever the reason, thousands of students each year make their dreams of a university education come true.


2. Aviation 版本一

After World War II, especially in North America, there was a boom in general aviation, both private and commercial, as thousands of pilots were released from military service and much inexpensive war-surplus transport and training aircraft became available.

Manufacturers such as Cessna, Piper, and Beechcraft expanded production to provide light aircraft for the new middle-class market.

By the 1950s, the development of civil jets grew, beginning with the de Havilland Comet, though the first widely used passenger jet was the Boeing 707 because it was much more economical than other aircraft at that time.

At the same time, turboprop propulsion began to appear for smaller commuter planes, making it possible to serve small-volume routes in a much wider range of weather conditions.


3. Aviation版本二

During the 1920s and 1930s, great progress was made in the field of aviation, including the first transatlantic flight of Alcock and Brown in 1919, Charles Lindbergh's solo transatlantic flight, in 1927, and Charles Kingsford Smith's transpacific flight the following year. 

One of the most successful designs of this period was the Douglas DC-3, which became the first airliner to be profitable carrying passengers exclusively, starting the modern era of passenger airline service. 

By the beginning of World War II, many towns and cities had built airports, and there were numerous qualified pilots available. 

The war brought many innovations to aviation, including the first jet aircraft and the first liquid-fuelled rockets. 


4. Greenhouse gas

There is a growing consensus that, if serious action is to be taken to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Canada, a price must be applied to those emissions.

There are, however, challenges associated with the political acceptability of carbon pricing.

If Canada implements a carbon price on its own, there are worries that Canadian factories will relocate to other countries to avoid the regulation.

Even if other countries act in concert with Canada to price carbon, the effects will be uneven across sectors, and

lobbying efforts by relatively more-affected sectors might threaten the political viability of the policy.


5. Mario de Andrade

Early in 1938, Mario de Andrade, the municipal secretary of culture here, dispatched a four-member Folklore Research Mission to the north-eastern hinterlands of Brazil on a similar mission.

The intention was to record as much music as possible as quickly as possible, before encroaching influences like radio and cinema began transforming the region's distinctive culture.

They recorded whoever and whatever seemed to be interesting: piano carriers, cowboys, beggars, voodoo priests, quarry workers, fishermen, dance troupes and even children at play.

But the Brazilian mission's collection ended up languishing in vaults here.


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04

Listening


Summarise Spoken Text:

1. Global warming/climate change

Climate change has become a severe problem which caused by increased carbon dioxide and other discharge of the greenhouse emissions.

The increase of population, limited resources and poverty will accelerate environmental problem.

People cannot take the risks of ignoring scientists’ prediction.

Commercial organisations and governments should take the responsibility and actions.


2. Indian peasants’ debts

Because of globalisation and patent, Indian peasants have to buy seeds from those companies that monopolise the market.

Peasants have to keep on using pesticide produced from these companies for the growth of the corps.

The agriculture products’ price is continuously decreasing, while the price of seeds and pesticide has increased by 4000 percent in the past 5 years.

Thus peasants have to borrow money from the companies, which eventually makes them unable to feed themselves and some of them more under pressure.

(Note: Indian Rupee 印度卢比)


3. Ugly Buildings in London 

The speaker mentioned some ugly buildings that can be seen in west London. 

The negative impact of ugly architectures is more severe than bad books as these awful buildings may exist for hundreds of years. 

However, the architect doesn't think those buildings are ugly because different people have different aesthetic perceptions. 

After all, beauty is in the eyes of the beholder. 


4. Environmental law

British government launched the environmental law long before at the time of Charles the Second in order to control the impact of human activities on environment.

However, the enforcement of environmental law was not well-established.

Later, during the time of Industrial Revolution, British government reinforced the environment law to punish those companies who applied the Adam Smith theory to increase their profitability.

Managers were unsatisfied, because companies had to pay more money to ensure the health of their employees under the environmental law, which made companies less competitive in the market.


5.  The sound receptor in ears

People have sound receptors in ears.

They can translate vibrational energy into the fluid into a physical motion, into the electrical motion and into an electrical signal that goes into your ear.

I invite some of you to learn more about this.


6. Vitamin D

Vitamin D is, in fact, a kind of hormone which can be ingested from dietary.

It is not necessary to ingest Vitamin D via food only if it can be sufficiently absorbed from sunshine.

However, people have been migrating from the equator to other places where they need to put clothes on.

Therefore, more Vitamin D via food is needed now as people’s skin are less exposed to sunshine.


7. Amory Lovins (Mr Green)

A man named Amory. Nobody knows him in the classroom, He has a consulting company and lives in a house built on a mountain.

He spent 30 years thinking about ways to save energy and solved problems with technologies that already existed.

People regarded him as genius. He has an unusual character with a wide range of knowledge, but he's not an academic.

A female writer wrote a book about him named Mr. Green.


8. Australian housing

Economic growth of the society

Affordable mortgage rates

Increased immigration leads to higher number of housing required while suppliers remain unchanged.

Increased purchasing power of buyers.


9. Big Bang Theory – Cosmology

Studying the cosmology of the universe is amazing. 

Big bang happened around ten to twenty billion years ago. 

A recently detailed measure indicates that big bang happened around 13.8 billion years ago, instead of 13 or 14 billion years.

The universe has been on a continuous changing status ever since. Even when the universe started is known, we still need to understand how it developed.

Big bang believed that all distant galaxies and clusters are receding away from our vantage point with an apparent velocity proportional to their distance.



Fill in the Blanks

1. Smart Card

Well in 2004 we integrated ticketing in South East Queensland, so we introduced a paper ticket that allowed you to travel across all the three modes in South East Queensland, so bus, train and ferry, and the second stage of integrated ticketing is the introduction of a Smart Card, and the Smart Card will enable people to store value so to put value on the card, and then to use the card for travelling around the system.

音频地址:

http://mpegmedia.abc.net.au/rn/podcast/2006/12/bbg_20061210.mp3 [37:16-37:43] 


2. William Shakespeare

For all his fame and celebration, William Shakespeare remains a mysterious figure with regards to personal history. There are just two primary sources for information on the Bard: his works, and various legal and church documents that have survived from Elizabethan times. Naturally, there are many gaps in this body of information, which tells us little about Shakespeare the man.


3.

Nutrients, months, subsiding, discuss, sociable, depth, shallow


4. Getting bored in class

A majority of U.S. high school students say they get bored in class every day, and more than one out of five has considered dropping out, according to a survey released on Wednesday. The survey of 81 ,000 students in 26 states found two-thirds of high school students complain of boredom, usually because the subject matter was irrelevant or their teachers didn't seem to care about them.(注:26写数字即可)


5. Foreshadow

Now that story's been scotched, as only part of contingency planning. But it was a symptom of the dramatic turn of events in South Australia, and it flushed out other remarks from water academics and people like Tim Flannery, indicating that things were really much worse than had been foreshadowed, even earlier this year.

So is Adelaide, let alone some whole regions of South Australia, in serious bother? Considering that the vast amount of its drinking water comes from the beleaguered Murray, something many of us outside the State may not have quite realised. Is their predicament something we have to face up to as a nation?


6.(新) 

subscribe, electronically, search, listed


7. 其他高频词汇:

Intensive, coercive, aftermath, dead, dependence, growing, occurring, accumulating, automatic, nutrition, intensive, nutrients, social, whatever, ultimately, radically, consciousness, critically, similar, conversion, Atlantic, spirit, movement, psychological, neighbor, neighboring/neighbouring, generation, factory, nitrogen, biology, alphabet, subscribed, operational, galaxies, intelligent, difficulty, rare, followers, introduced, behalf, primarily, elementary, exploring, intentional, intentionally, subsidize, empathy, professionally, sculpture, emulation, emit, problems, campaign, spotted, restore, thick, lays, philosophy, relying, beneath, traditionally, weird, naval, dividend, permanent, paradox, forecast, extreme, subordinate


Write from Dictation:

1. Animals raised in captivity behave differently from their wild counterparts.

2. Assignments should be submitted to the department before deadline.

3. Clinical placement for nursing will prepare students for professional practice.

4. Commission will collect fines of sovereignties. / Commission will pull out funds among the sovereignties. /The commissioner will portion funds for the authorities. 

5. Control systems in manufacturing require a high level of accuracy.

6. Evaluation forms are reviewed by the university personnel.

7. Free campus tours run daily in summer for prospective students.

8. Global connections increased in academic communities, thanks to social media. 

9. Good research delivers practical benefits for real people.

10. Governments need to make solar energy more affordable to everyone. 

11. I thought we would meet in the small meeting room.

12. It is absolutely vital that you acknowledge all your sources.

13. Let me know if anybody struggles in labs.

14. Many of the graduates of the journalism get jobs in the communication field.

15. Most of the students have not considered this issue before.

16. Mutually exclusive events are described (as) neither complementary nor opposing.

17. Native speaker’s language are exempt from the language test/their own native language.

18. Our professor is hosting the economic conference next week.

19. Participants are initially selected from a range of foundation subjects.

20. Radio is a popular form of the entertainment throughout the world.

21. She used to be the editor of student newspaper.

22. Students were instructed to submit their assignments by Friday.

23. The aerial photograph was promptly registered for thoroughly evaluations.

24. The artist/ Artists ties/tied the conservative politicians, earned their/the roles of critics.

25. The business policy seminar includes an internship with a local firm. 

26. The chemical building is located near the entrance to the campus.

27. The city’s founder created a set of rules that became to law.

28. The first assignment is due on the fourteenth of September.

29. The massive accumulation of data is commuted in to a convertible argument./The massive accumulation of data is converted into a communicable argument.

30. The morning’s lecture on economic policies has been canceled. 


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