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【考前必刷】PTE三月上半旬高频,真题预测!


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Hello~各位小伙伴们~

又到了每月的真题预测时间!

最近学员们都表示机经的命中率很高哦

大家快刷起来


01

Speaking

Read Aloud(部分):

1. Marketing Management

For any marketing course that requires the development of a marketing plan, such as Marketing Management, Marketing Strategy and Principles of Marketing, this is the only planning handbook that guides students through step by step creation of a customized marketing plan while offering commercial software to aid in the process.


2. Vanilla

The uniquely scented flavor of vanilla is second only to chocolate in popularity on the world’s palate. It’s also the second most expensive spice after saffron. But highly labor intensive cultivation methods and the plant’s temperamental life cycle and propagation mean production on a global scale is struggling to keep up with the increasing demand for the product.


3. Legal Writing

Legal writing is usually less discursive than writing in other humanities subjects, and precision is more important than variety. Sentence structure should not be too complex; it is usually unnecessary to make extensive use of adjectives or adverbs, and consistency of terms is often required.


4. Semiconductor

The semiconductor industry has been able to improve the performance of electric systems for more than four decades by making ever-smaller devices. However, this approach will soon encounter both scientific and technical limits, which is why the industry is exploring a number of alternative device technologies.


5. Yellow 

Yellow is the most optimistic colour, yet surprisingly, people lose their tempers most often in yellow rooms and babies cry more in them. The reason may be that yellow is the hardest colour on the eye. On the other hand, it speeds metabolism and enhances concentration; think of yellow legal pads and post-it notes.


6. Carbon Dioxide Emissions 

When countries assess their annual carbon dioxide emissions, they count up their cars and power stations, but bush fires are not included presumably because they are deemed to be events beyond human control. In Australia, Victoria alone sees several hundred thousand hectares burn each year in both 2004 and the present summer, the figure has been over 1 million hectares.


7. Tesla

Tesla actually worked for Edison early in his career. Edison offered to pay him the modern equivalent of a million dollars to fix the problems he was having with his DC generators and motors. Tesla fixed Edison's machines and when he asked for the money he was promised, Edison laughed him off and had this to say, Tesla, you don't understand our American humour. (该题据回忆类似但并不是原考题)


8. Augustus

Augustus was given the powers of an absolute monarch, but he presented himself as the preserver of republican traditions. He treated the Senate, or state council, with great respect, and was made Consul year after year. He successfully reduced the political power of the army by retiring many soldiers, but giving them land or money to keep their loyalty.


9. MBA

Exhilarating, exhausting and intense, there are just some of the words used to describe doing an MBA, everyone's experience of doing MBA is, of course, different through denying that it's hard and demanding work whichever course you do. MBA is one of the fastest growing areas of studying in the UK so that must be a sustainable benefit against form in one pain.


10. Brain 

The brain is divided into two hemispheres, called the left and right hemispheres. Each hemisphere provided a different set of functions, behaviours, and controls. The right hemisphere is often called the creative side of the brain, while the left hemisphere is the logical or analytic side of brain.


11. Introvert and extrovert

Introvert (or those of us with introverted tendencies) tends to recharge by spending time alone. They lose energy from being around people for long periods of time, particularly large crowds. extroverts, on tvhe other hand, gain energy from other people. Extroverts actually find their energy is sapped when they spend too much time alone. They recharge by being social.


Repeat Sentence(部分):


1. A hundred years ago, Albert Einstein first published his theory of general relativity.

2. All essays and seminar papers submitted must be emailed to your tutor.

3. All lectures’ handouts are downloadable on the university website.

4. By clicking this button, you agree with the terms and conditions of this website.

5. Companies need to satisfy customers’ needs if they want to be successful.

6. During the period, heavy industry grew rapidly in the north of the country.

7. Elephant is the largest land living mammal.

8. Higher fees cause the student to look more critically at what universities offer.

9. His academic supervisor called in to see him last night.

10. I am pleased to report that many topics have been involved in this lecture.

11. In consultation with your supervisor, your thesis is approved by the faculty committee.

12. It's important to keep this medicine in the fridge.

13. Many medical volunteers no longer access to medical literature.

14. Nearly half of the television production are given away for education program. 

15. Our professor is hosting the business development conference next week.

16. She doesn't even care about anything but what is honest and true.

17. Student loans are now available for international students.

18. Students are not allowed to take journals out of the library.

19. That country's economy is primarily based on tourism.

20. The lecture on child psychology has been postponed until Friday.



Describe Image(部分):

*常规的柱状图、饼图、折线图、图表题依旧很高频,注意练熟

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标题为:The United Arab Emirates’ Flag and Jordan’s Flag


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Retell Lecture(部分):

1. Monkey


2. The first Robots

音频地址:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dGPPjGqT6PA    (1:30 – 2:56)

参考原文:

This is a kind of object that you’re probably all familiar with when you had the term robot, but I’m gonna show you the very, very first robots. These were the very first robots. They were characters in a play in the 1920s called Rossum’s Universal Robots and they, the play was written by Czech writer called Karel Capek. And basically, these robots, you know, people tend to think of robots as kind of cute cuddly toys or, you know, Hollywood depictions kind of devoid of politics. But the first robots were actually created and imagined in a time of absolute political turmoil. You just had the First World War, you know, it finished had a devastating impact across Europe and so people will kind and people are kind of reflecting on what does it mean to be human, what makes us human, those kinds of question. And this kind of context is what inspired Capek to kind of write this play. And interestingly, these robots being human, they are actually in the play assembled on a production line, a bit like the Ford manufacturing production line. So even though they are human, they are assembled and these robots are designed to labor, and that is their primary purpose in society.


3. Dark Energy

 

4. Non-profit organization

 

5. Frogs

 

6. Darkness between galaxies


7. Large Hadron Collider

参考原文:

Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest particle accelerator lies in a tunnel. The LHC is a ring roughly 28km around that accelerates protons almost to the speed of light before colliding them head-on. Protons are particles found in the atomic nucleus, roughly one thousand-million-millionth of a meter in size. The LHC starts with a bottle of hydrogen gas, which is sent through an electric field to strip away the electrons, leaving just the protons. Electric and magnetic fields are the key to a particle accelerator.


8. Government Blogging

有一页ppt,上面有很多信息,跟着读即可

大致内容:

• We normally see blogging as a two-way interaction, in which the blogger/author creates the content and the readers interact or challenge the author.

• But the case will be much difficult when it comes to government, such as the White House.

• Because people will become coarser and ride online,especially in the comment area.

• Hence the governor blog may go wild and chaotic.


更多预测请参阅完整版 3月PTE高频预测.pdf





02

Writing


Summarise Written Text(部分):


1. Skipping breakfast 

版本1: 

• Skipping breakfast will make metabolism slower and result in hypoglycemias. 

• This is particularly detrimental to school children, because they may just imitate those adults to skip breakfast.

• What they only need is merely cereal and low fat milk as a complete breakfast.


版本2:

•很多人不吃早餐,对身体不好,学生不吃早餐会影响到学习能力。

•牛奶、水果、谷物就是很好的早餐提供给人能量,低糖谷物(low sugar cereal)和脱脂牛奶(no fat milk)的营养足够了。

• Babies一半会吃早餐,因为早上是最饿的时候,但是成年后有的人形成了不吃早餐的习惯(once kids reach school age, it becomes a learned experience rather than instinct)


2. Labor comparative advantage 

With an abundance of low-priced labor relative to the United States, it is no surprise that China, India and other developing countries specialise in the production of labor-intensive products. For similar reasons, the United States will specialise in the production of goods that are human and physicalcapital intensive because of the relative abundance of a highly-educated labor force and technically sophisticated equipment in the United States. 


The division of global production should yield higher global output of both types of goods than would be the case if each country attempted to produce both of these goods itself. For example, the United States would produce more expensive labor-intensive goods because of its more expensive labor and the developing countries would produce more expensive human and physical capital-intensive goods because of their relative scarcity of these inputs. This logic implies that the United States is unlikely to be a significant global competitor in the production green technologies that are not relatively intensive in human and physical capital.


Nevertheless, during the early stages of the development of a new technology, the United States has a comparative advantage in the production of the products enable by this innovation. However, once these technologies become well-understood and production processes are designed that can make use of less-skilled labor; production will migrate to countries with less expensive labor.


参考答案:

China, India and other developing countries specialise in the production of labor-intensive products, and the United States will specialise in the production of goods that are human and physical-capital intensive, and the division of global production should yield higher global output of both types of goods, and the United States is unlikely to be a significant global competitor in the production green technologies, and production will migrate to countries with less expensive labor. (75words)


3. Parents control their children’s TV watching

Why and to what extent should parents control their children’s TV watching? There is certainly nothing inherently wrong with TV. The problem is how much television a child watches and what effect it has on his life. Research has shown that as the amount of time spent watching TV goes up, the amount of time devoted not only to homework and study but other important aspects of life such as social development and physical activities decreases. 


Television is bound to have it tremendous impact on a child, both in terms of how many hours a week he watches TV and of what he sees. When a parent is concerned about the effects of television, he should consider a number of things: what TV offers the child in terms of information and knowledge, how many hours a week a youngster his age should watch television, the impact of violence and sex, and the influence of commercials. 


What about the family as a whole? Is the TV set a central piece of furniture in your home! Is it flicked on the moment someone enters the empty house? Is it on during the daytime? Is it part of the background noise of your family life? Do you demonstrate by your own viewing that television should be watched selectively? 


参考答案:

Parents should control their children’s TV watching because how much television a child watches and what effect it has on his life, and when a parent is concerned about the effects of television, he should consider a number of things: what TV offers the child in terms of information and knowledge, how many hours a week a youngster his age should watch television, the impact of violence and sex, and the influence of commercials.


4. Wine Prohibition 

In 1920, the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution created yet another setback for the American wine industry. The National Prohibition Act, also known as the Volstead Act, prohibited the manufacture, sale, transportation, importation, exportation, delivery, or possession of intoxicating liquors for beverage purpose. Prohibition, which continued for thirteen years, nearly destroyed what had become a thriving and national industry. 


One of the loopholes in the Volstead Act allowed for the manufacture and sale of sacramental wine, medicinal wines for sale by pharmacists with a doctors’ prescription, and medicinal wine tonics (fortified wines) sold without prescription. Perhaps more important, Prohibition allowed anyone to produce up to two hundred gallons yearly of fruit juice or cider. The fruit juice, which was sometimes made into concentrate, was ideal for making wine. People would buy grape concentrate from California and have it shipped to the East Coast. The top of the container was stamped in big, bold letters: caution: do not add sugar or yeast or else fermentation will take place! Some of this yield found its way to bootleggers throughout America who did just that. But not for long, because the government stepped in and banned the sale of grape juice, preventing illegal wine production. Vineyards stopped being planted, and the American wine industry came to a halt. 


参考答案:

The National Prohibition Act, also known as the Volstead Act, prohibited the manufacture, sale, transportation, importation, exportation, delivery, or possession of intoxicating liquors for beverage purpose, and there are loopholes, and government stepped in and banned the sale of grape juice, preventing illegal wine production, and American wine industry came to a halt.


5. Malaysia

Malaysia is one of the most pleasant, hassle-free countries to visit in Southeast Asia. Aside from its gleaming 21st century glass towers, it boasts some of the most superb beaches, mountains and national parks in the region. Malaysia is also launching its biggest-ever tourism campaign in effort to lure 20 million visitors here this year.


Any tourist itinerary would have to begin in the capital, Kuala Lumpur, where you will find the Petronas Twin Towers, which once comprised the worlds tallest buildings and now hold the title of second-tallest. Both the 88-story towers soar 1,480 feet high and are connected by a sky-bridge on the 41st floor. The limestone temple Batu Caves, located 9 miles north of the city, have a 328-foot-high ceiling and feature ornate Hindu shrines, including a 141-foot-tall gold- painted statue of a Hindu deity. To reach the caves, visitors have to climb a steep flight of 272 steps. In Sabah state on Borneo island not to be confused with Indonesias Borneo you'll find the small mushroom-shaped Sipadan island, off the coast of Sabah, rated as one of the top five diving sites in the world. Sipadan is the only oceanic island in Malaysia, rising from a 2,300-foot abyss in the Celebes Sea. You can also climb Mount Kinabalu, the tallest peak in Southeast Asia, visit the Sepilok Orang Utan Sanctuary, go white-water rafting and catch a glimpse of the bizarre Proboscis monkey, a primate found only in Borneo with a huge pendulous nose, a characteristic pot belly and strange honking sounds.


While you're in Malaysia, consider a trip to Malacca. In its heyday, this southern state was a powerful Malay sultanate and a booming trading port in the region. Facing the Straits of Malacca, this historical state is now a place of intriguing Chinese streets, antique shops, old temples and reminders of European colonial powers. Another interesting destination is Penang, known as the Pearl of the Orient. This island off the northwest coast of Malaysia boasts of a rich Chinese cultural heritage, good food and beautiful beaches.


 参考答案:

Malaysia is one of the most pleasant, hassle-free countries to visit in Southeast Asia, and any tourist itinerary would have to begin in the capital, Kuala Lumpur, and Sipadan is the only oceanic island in Malaysia, and you can also climb Mount Kinabalu, and Malacca was a powerful Malay sultanate and a booming trading port in the region, and Penang boasts of a rich Chinese cultural heritage, good food and beautiful beaches.


6. Electric car

Here's a term you're going to hear much more often: plug-in vehicle, and the acronym PEV. It's what you and many other people will drive to work in, ten years and more from now. At that time, before you drive off in the morning you will first unplug your car - your plugin vehicle. Its big on board batteries will have been fully charged overnight, with enough power for you to drive 50-100 kilometers through city traffic.


When you arrive at work you'll plug in your car once again, this time into a socket that allows power to flow form your car's batteries to the electricity grid. One of the things you did when you bought your car was to sign a contract with your favorite electricity supplier, allowing them to draw a limited amount of power from your car's batteries should they need to, perhaps because of a blackout, or very high wholesale spot power prices. The price you get for the power the distributor buys from your car would not only be most attractive to you, it would be a good deal for them too, their alternative being very expensive power form peaking stations. If, driving home or for some other reason your batteries looked like running flat, a relatively small, but quiet and efficient engine running on petrol, diesel or compressed natural gas, even bio-fuel, would automatically cut in, driving a generator that supplied the batteries so you could complete your journey.

Concerns over 'peak oil', increasing greenhouse gas emissions, and the likelihood that by the middle of this century there could be five times as many motor vehicles registered worldwide as there are now, mean that the world's almost total dependence on petroleum-based fuels for transport is, in every sense of the word, unsustainable.


参考答案:

Plug-in vehicle, known as the acronym PEV, is what you and many other people will drive to work in ten years and more from now, it will be unplugged before driving off, and its big onboard batteries will have been fully charged overnight, and you will plug in your car into a socket, and there will be an engine running if batteries was running flat, and petroleum-based fuels for transport is unsustainable. (72 words)


7. Tree rings (dendrochronology 树木年代学) 

Here’s how tree ring dating, known to scientists as dendrochronology works. If you cut a tree down today, it’s straightforward to count the rings inwards, starting from the tree’s outside (corresponding to this year’s growth ring), and thereby to state that the 177th ring from the outermost one towards the centre was laid down in the year 2005 minus 177, or 1828. However, the widths of tree growth rings vary from year to year, depending on the rain or drought conditions in each year. 


Hence the sequence of the rings in a tree cross-section is like a message in Morse code formerly used for sending telegraph messages; dot-dot-dash-dot-dash in the Morse code, wide-wide narrow-wide- narrow in the tree ring sequence. Actually the tree ring sequence is even more diagnostic and richer in information than the Morse code, because trees actually contain rings spanning many different width, rather than the Morse code choice between dot and dash. 


Tree ring specialists (known as dendrochronologists) proceed by noting the sequence of wider and narrower rings in a tree cut down in a known recent year, and also noting the sequences in beams from trees cut down at various times in the past. They then match up and align the tree ring sequences with the same diagnostic wide/narrow patterns from different beams. 


In that way, dendrochronologists have constructed tree ring records extending back for thousands of years in some parts of the world. Each record is valid for a geographic area whose extent depends on local weather patterns, because weather and hence tree growth patterns vary with location.


参考答案:

How tree ring dating is known as dendrochronology works, and the widths of tree growth rings vary from year to year, and the sequence of the rings is like a message in Morse code, and it is even more diagnostic and richer in information, and tree ring specialists proceed by noting the sequence of wider and narrower rings, and each record is valid for a geographic area whose extent depends on local weather patterns. (74 words)



Essay:


1. Happiness index is becoming a new national success rather than only economic growth. What do you think about this idea? What can be used to measure happiness index?

2. In the modern society governments and international institutions are faced with many global problems. What these problems could be? Measure?

3. Is it positive for Students to learn with employment?

4. Government should create better network of public transport available for everyone or build more roads owning population.

5. Design of buildings have positive or negative impact on people’s life and work?

6. Experience is more effective and useful than books and formal education. What is your opinion?

7. Younger employees are better than older employees in skills, knowledge and motivation…

8. The kind of life a person has depends on his/her personality.

9. Governments invest more educational resources on science subjects. 

10. Large shopping malls are replacing small shops. What is your opinion about this? Discuss with appropriate examples.

11. How widely of you think the problem spreads that people spend too much time on work than their personal life and experience time shortage? What problems will it cause?

12. The advanced medical technology expands human’s life. Do you think it is a curse or blessing?

13. Do you think cashless society is realistic and why? What are the advantages and disadvantages?

14. The Internet can make traditional schools unnecessary in the future. Agree or not?

15. Is it fair for universities to deduct students’ marks when their assignments are overdue? How to solve this problem?

16. What do you think of bidding to host sports events? Is it a blessing or a curse? Give your opinions. 


更多预测请参阅完整版 3月PTE高频预测.pdf





03

Reading

Fill in The Blanks(部分)


1. Wind

Wind is air moving around. Some winds can move as fast as a racing car, over 100 miles an hour. Winds can travel around the world. Wind can make you feel cold because you lose heat from your body faster when it is windy Weather forecasters need to know the speed and direction of the wind. the strength of wind is measured using the Beaufort scale from wind force when there is no wind, to wind force 12 which can damage houses and buildings and is called hurricane force.


2. Greek and Wine

By the Bronze Age drinking vessels were being made of sheet metal, primarily bronze or gold. However, the peak of feasting -- and in particular, of the ‘political’ type of feast --came in the late Hallstatt period (about 600--450 BC), soon after the foundation of the Greek colony of Massalia (Marseille) at the mouth of the Rhine. From that date on, the blood of the grape began to make its way north and east along major river systems together with imported metal and ceramic drinking vessels from the Greek world.


Wine was thus added to the list of mood -- altering beverages -- such as mead and ale (see coloured text below) -- available to establish social networks in Iron Age Europe. Attic pottery fragments found at hill-forts such as Heuneburg in Germany and luxury goods such as the monumental 5th century Greek bronze krater (or wine mixing vessel) found at Vix in Burgundy supply archaeological evidence of this interaction. Organic containers such as leather or wooden wine barrels may also have travelled north into Europe but have not survived. It is unknown what goods were traded in return, but they may have included salted meat, hides, timber, amber and slaves.


3. Clones

Clones of an Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) in the Bronx and other city spots grew to double the biomass of clones planted outside small towns upstate or on Long Island, says Jillian Gregg, now of the Environmental Protection Agency’s western-ecology division in Corvallis, Ore. The growth gap comes from ozone damage, she and her New York colleagues report. Ozone chemists have known that concentrations may spike skyscraper high in city air, but during a full 24 hours, rural trees actually get a higher cumulative ozone exposure from urban pollution that blows in and lingers. A series of new experiments now shows that this hang-around ozone is the overwhelming factor in tree growth, the researchers say in the July 10 Nature. “This study has profound importance in showing us most vividly that rural areas pay the price for urban pollution,” says Stephen R Long of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. “This work should be a wake-up call,” he adds.


4. Impressionist painters 

Impressionist painters were considered radical in their time because they broke many of the rules of picture-making set by earlier generations. They found many of their subjects in life around them rather than in history, which was then the accepted source of subject matter. 

http://www.aaronartprints.org/impressionism.php 


5. Poverty

Measuring poverty on a global scale requires establishing a uniform poverty level across extremely divergent economies, which can result in only rough comparisons. The World Bank has defined the international poverty line as U.S. $1 and $2 per day in 1993 Purchasing Power Parity (PPP), which adjusts for differences in the prices of goods and services between countries. The $1 per day level is generally used for the least developed countries, primarily African the $2-per-day level is used for middle — Income economies such as those of East Asia and Latin America.


6. Dairy Farms

A few summers ago I visited two dairy farms, Huls Farm and Gardar Farm, which despite being located thousands of miles apart were still remarkably similar in their strengths and vulnerabilities. Both were by far the largest, most prosperous, most technologically advanced farms in their respective districts. In particular, each was cantered around a magnificent state-of-the-art barn for sheltering and milking cows. Those structures, both neatly divided into opposite-facing rows of cow stalls, dwarfed all other barns in the district. Both farms let their cows graze outdoors in lush pastures during the summer, produced their own hay to harvest in the late summer for feeding the cows through the winter, and increased(gained) their production of summer fodder and winter hay by irrigating their fields. 


7. Arbitration

Arbitraion is a method of conflict resolution which with more or less formalized mechanisms, occurs in many political and legal spheres. There are two main characteristics to arbitration. The first is that it is a voluntary process under which two parties in conflict atree between themselves to be bound by the judgment of a third party which has no other authority over them; the judgment, however, is not legally binding. The second is that there is usually no clear body of law or set of rules that must apply; the arbitrator is free, subject to any prior agreement with the conflicting parties, to decide on whatever basis of justice is deemed suitable.


8. Tomb of Tutankhamun

The last tourists may have been leaving the Valley of the Kings on the West Bank in Luxor but the area in front of the tomb of Tutankhamun remained far from deserted. Instead of the tranquillity that usually descends on the area in the evening it was a hive of activity. TV crews trailed masses of equipment, journalists milled and photographers held their cameras at the ready. The reason? For the first time since Howard Carter discovered the tomb in 1922 the mummy of Tutankhamun was being prepared for public display. Inside the subterranean burial chamber Egypt's archaeology supremo Zahi Hawass, accompanied by four Egyptologists, two restorers and three workmen, were slowly lifting the mummy from the golden sarcophagus where it has been rested -- mostly undisturbed – for more than 3,000 years. The body was then placed on a wooden stretcher and transported to its new home, a high- tech, climate-controlled plexi-glass showcase located in the outer chamber of the tomb where, covered in linen, with only the face and feet exposed, it now greets visitors.


Re-order Paragraph:


1. Students Go Overseas

  • All over the world students are changing countries for their university studies.

  • They don’t all have the same reasons for going or for choosing a particular place to study.

  • They may choose a university because of its interesting courses or perhaps because they like the country and its language.

  • Some students go overseas because they love travel.

  • Whatever the reason, thousands of students each year make their dreams of a university education come true.


2. Greenhouse gas

  • There is a growing consensus that, if serious action is to be taken to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Canada, a price must be applied to those emissions.

  • There are, however, challenges associated with the political acceptability of carbon pricing.

  • If Canada implements a carbon price on its own, there are worries that Canadian factories will relocate to other countries to avoid the regulation.

  • Even if other countries act in concert with Canada to price carbon, the effects will be uneven across sectors, and

  • lobbying efforts by relatively more-affected sectors might threaten the political viability of the policy.


3. Ne Tam (Monash student)

  • Mechanical engineering student Ne Tam is spending the first semester of this year studying at the University of California, Berkeley as part of the Monash Abroad program.

  • Ne, an international student from Shanghai, China, began her Monash journey at Monash Collage in October 2006.

  • There she completed a diploma that enabled her to enter Monash University as a second-year student.

  • Now in her third year of study, the Monash Abroad program will see her complete four units of study in the US before returning to Australia in May 2009.


4. The job of a manager

  • The job of a manager in the work place is to get things done through the employee.

  • In order to do this, the manager should be able to motivate its employees.

  • However, this easier said than done.

  • Motivation practice and theory are difficult, complex subjects touching on several disciplines.


5. Mario de Andrade

  • Early in 1938, Mario de Andrade, the municipal secretary of culture here, dispatched a four-member Folklore Research Mission to the north-eastern hinterlands of Brazil on a similar mission.

  • The intention was to record as much music as possible as quickly as possible, before encroaching influences like radio and cinema began transforming the region's distinctive culture.

  • They recorded whoever and whatever seemed to be interesting: piano carriers, cowboys, beggars, voodoo priests, quarry workers, fishermen, dance troupes and even children at play.

  • But the Brazilian mission's collection ended up languishing in vaults here.


6. Early Rails

  • Early rails were used on horse drawn wagon way, originally with wooden rails, but from the 1760s using strap-iron rails, which consisted of thin strips of cast iron fixed onto wooden rails.

  • These rails were too fragile to carry heavy loads, but because the initial construction cost was less, this method was sometimes used to quickly build an inexpensive rail line. 

  • However, the long-term expense involved in frequent maintenance outweighed any savings.

  • These were superseded by cast iron rails that were flanged and with the wagon wheels flat.

  • An early proponent of this design was Benjamin Outram. His partner William Jessop preferred the use of "edge rails" in 1789 where the wheels were flanged and, over time, it was realised that this combination worked better.

  • The first steel rails were made in 1857 by Robert Forester Mushet, who laid them at Derby station in England. Steel is a much stronger material, which steadily replaced iron for use on railway rail and allowed much longer lengths of rails to be rolled.


更多预测请参阅完整版 3月PTE高频预测.pdf




04

Listening


Summarise Spoken Text (部分):

1. HTML

When 90’s comes around, more and more people could get online.

Thanks to UK, the invention of HTML allowed people to create a wide variety of works.

During the first decade, people created things like web pages and lessons without fears, religion, motivation or profitability

Because people can feel a sense of enjoyment through their creation 


2. Decline of Bees

The sign of decline in number of bees

The drivers of these declines vary, depending on different species.

The loss of pollination could be huge and catastrophic, which was not yet been proved.

The positive side is that people are aware of this and are taking actions to fix it.


3. War of talents

The world is suffering from short of talents.

Demographic(人口统计)forces: Increasing longevity(长寿), declining birthrates(低出生率), and the disproportionate(失衡) size of the post-war baby boom generation.

The change of economic nature demands more skilled employees: Globalisation, with increasing economic integration across nations, profoundly impacts labor supply and the talent war. Capital markets are vast and global and rapid advances in digital technology emerged.

Global competition and increasing mobility: People are more willing to relocate outside their home countries after graduation, particularly high-skilled group.


4. Indian peasants’ debts

Because of globalisation and patent, Indian peasants have to buy seeds from those companies that monopolise the market.

Peasants have to keep on using pesticide produced from these companies for the growth of the corps.

The agriculture products’ price is continuously decreasing, while the price of seeds and pesticide has increased by 4000 percent in the past 5 years.

Thus peasants have to borrow money from the companies, which eventually makes them unable to feed themselves and some of them more under pressure.

(Note: Indian Rupee 印度卢比)


5. Australian housing

Economic growth of the society

Affordable mortgage rates

Increased immigration leads to higher number of housing required while suppliers remain unchanged.

Increased purchasing power of buyers.


6. An experiment about female body fat 

An experiment on female body fat change.

This lecture is mainly about an experiment conducted by Canadian researchers on body fat changes.

31 obese women volunteered in the program and was asked not to change their current diet and exercise regularly for 6 months.

After 6 months, some people lost weight and some people gained weight, others did not change.

Two explanations:

People ate a lot more or cheated.

Consciously or subconsciously exercised less. (unsure?)


7. Memories

Different systems of memories, including implicit and explicit memories.

Implicit memories cannot be consciously recalled upon, and behaviours are automatic. This often relates to a persons cultural and social background. E.g. Using language naturally, reading and driving.

Explicit memories are highly personal memories relating to time, space and people. It is totally different from implicit memory, which is why people can remember birthdays and answer multiple questions in a test.


8. Non-verbal language(description)

Symbolic language is a layer of computer

Why involve it? Because we need to communicate. Language is a good example: people use sign language to ask for help.

It is good to use hand while communicating.

Non-verbal communication plays an important role in communicating with others.

E.g. Pterosaur(翼⻰), facial expressions, gestures, postures, presentations in job interviews.


9. Human Right in UK

This lecture mainly discussed the free human rights in UK.

During the second world war, UK was the first country that mentioned free rights among other countries.

It set up the baseline and minimum standards.

The positive aspects of human rights include right to marry and election. The negative aspects include sex and religion.

Other aspects that UK government mentioned include voting, election, tourism and trading.


10. Structure of DNA 

The structure of DNA allows us to analyze effects of genes. 

Genes cannot only determine our physical features but also psychological and physical behaviors. 

By integrating information form neuroscience, we can have a deep knowledge about genes.


Fill in the Blanks

1. Neo-Latin

Those of you who’ve never heard the term neo-Latin,may be forgiven for thinking it’s a new South American dance craze. If you’re puzzled when I tell you it has something to do with the language of Romans, take heart, over the years many classes who have confessed they are not really sure what it is either. Some have assumed that they are so-called 'Late-Latin’, written at the end of the Roman Empire. Others have supposed it must have something to do with the middle ages. Or perhaps it’s that pseudo-Latin which my five and seven-year-old boys seem to have gleaned from the Harry Potter books, useful for spells and curses that they zip one another with make shift paper ash ones. No, in fact, neo-Latin is more or less the same as the Latin that was written in the ancient world, classical Latin. So, what’s so new about it?


2. Getting bored in class

A majority of U.S. high school students say they get bored in class every day, and more than one out of five has considered dropping out, according to a survey released on Wednesday. The survey of 81 ,000 students in 26 states found two-thirds of high school students complain of boredom, usually because the subject matter was irrelevant or their teachers didn't seem to care about them.(注:26写数字即可)


3. 3D printing & electronic circuit

million, equations, commonly, (thick) range, objects/objectives.


4.

undoubtedly, envision, boast, pragmatic, debate, relying


高频词汇:

Technological, relatives solutions, foundation, environment, electronics, journalist, agency, scary, permanent, repetition, brilliant, identical, developmental, individuality, boost, habit, intentional, intentionally, colorful, poison frogs, mutate, key straightforward, popular, essential, dyslexia, disorder, portraits, distinctive, premium, overseas, infrastructure, demographic, Intensive, coercive, aftermath, dead, dependence, growing, occurring, accumulating, automatic, nutrition, intensive, nutrients, social, whatever, ultimately, radically, consciousness, critically, similar, conversion, Atlantic, spirit, movement, psychological, neighbor, neighboring/neighbouring, generation, factory, nitrogen, biology, alphabet, subscribed, operational, galaxies, intelligent, difficulty, rare, followers, introduced, behalf, primarily, elementary, exploring, subsidize, empathy, professionally, sculpture, emulation, emit, problems, campaign, spotted, restore, thick, lays, philosophy, relying, beneath, traditionally, weird, naval, dividend, paradox, forecast, extreme, subordinate


Write from Dictation (部分):

1. Animals raised in captivity behave differently from their wild counterparts.

2. Behind the garage is secret storage room. /Behind the garage, there is a flat cart driven by mules.

3. Check the website if you are looking for discounted textbooks. 

4. Clinical placement for nursing will prepare students for professional practice.

5. Evaluation forms are reviewed by the university personnel.

6. Good research delivers practical benefits for real people.

7. If finance is a cause of concern, scholarships may be available.

8. It is hard to anticipate all the characters that were in the act.

9. Observers waited nervously and held a breath for the concert.

10. Our professor is hosting the economic conference next week.

11. Participants initially select from a range of foundation subjects.

12. Please/try to work with each other to build monolithic status.

13. Radio is a popular form of the entertainment throughout the world.

14. Relevant resources are reserved in the hall of library on the reference desk.

15. Scientists are always asking governments for more money.

16. She used to be the editor of student newspaper.

17. Some of the features are part of previous research/system.

18. Strangely, people are impacted by spontaneously using statistics. 

19. Student concession cards need to be obtained by completing an application form.

20. Students were instructed to submit their assignments by Friday.

21. The aerial photograph was promptly registered for thoroughly evaluations.

22. The artist/Artists ties/tied the conservative politicians, earned their/the roles of critics.

23. The application process is longer than expected.

24. The business plan/policy seminar includes an internship with a local firm.

25. The city’s founder created a set of rules that became to law.

26. The commissioner will portion funds for the authorities.

27. The qualification will be assessed with the criteria reference.

28. The synopsis contains the most important information.

29. The theme of the instrumental work exhibits more of a demure, compositional style.

30. The toughest part for public transportation/postgraduate students is funding.


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