When countries assess their annual carbon dioxide emissions, they count up their cars and power stations, but bush fires are not included presumably because they are deemed to be events beyond human control. In Australia, Victoria alone sees several hundred thousand hectares burn each year in both 2004 and the present summer, the figure has been over 1 million hectares.
The uniquely scented flavor of vanilla is second only to chocolate in popularity on the world’s palate. It’s also the second most expensive spice after saffron. But highly labor intensive cultivation methods and the plant’s temperamental life cycle and propagation mean production on a global scale is struggling to keep up with the increasing demand for the product.
Akimbo, this must be one of the odder-looking words in the language. It puzzles us in part because it doesn't seem to have any relatives. What's more, it is now virtually a fossil word, until recently almost invariably found in 'arms Akimbo', a posture in which a person stands with hands on hips and elbows sharply bent outward, one that signals impatience, hostility, and contempt.
Tesla actually worked for Edison early in his career. Edison offered to pay him the modern equivalent of a million dollars to fix the problems he was having with his DC generators and motors. Tesla fixed Edison's machines and when he asked for the money he was promised, Edison laughed him off and had this to say, Tesla, you don't understand our American humour. (该题据回忆类似但并不是原考题)
Pluto lost its official status as a planet yesterday, when the International Astronomical Union downsized the solar system from nine to eight planets. Although there had been passionate debate at the IAU General Assembly Meeting in Prague about the definition of a planet - and whether Pluto met the specifications - the audience greeted the decision to exclude it with applause.
Exhilarating, exhausting and intense, there are just some of the words used to describe doing an MBA, everyone's experience of doing MBA is, of course, different through denying that it's hard and demanding work whichever course you do. MBA is one of the fastest growing areas of studying in the UK so that must be a sustainable benefit against form in one pain.
7. Marketing Management
For any marketing course that requires the development of a marketing plan, such as Marketing Management, Marketing Strategy and Principles of Marketing, this is the only planning handbook that guides students through step by step creation of a customized marketing plan while offering commercial software to aid in the process.
8. Lenient Parents
Two sisters were at a dinner party when the conversation turned to upbringing. The elder sister started to say that her parents had been very strict and that she had been rather frightened of them. Her sister, younger by two years, interrupted in amazement. “What are you talking about?” she said. “Our parents were very lenient.”
Long isolated from Western Europe, Russia grew up without participating in the development like the Reformation that many Russians taking pride in their unique culture, find dubious value. Russia is, as a result, the most unusual member of European family, if indeed it is European at all. The question is still open to debate, particularly among Russians themselves.
10. Immense Disparity
The core of the problem was the immense disparity between the country's productive capacity and the ability of people to consume. Great innovations in productive techniques during and after the war raised the output of industry beyond the purchasing capacity of U.S. farmers and earners.
1. All of our accommodations are within walking distance to the academic buildings.
2. Environmental friendliness is a new category in which campuses are competing.
3. I don't agree with the author's point of view, but his presentation is good.
4. I expect a long and stagnant debate for a week or two on this issue.
5. It is good for the environment also good for your bill.
6. Many privately-owned firms have been eaten up by larger corporations.
7. Much of the evidence been used has only recently become available.
8. Opposition to the government tax policies is widespread across business sectors.
9. Please explain what the author means by "sustainability".
10. Please pass the handouts along to the rest of the people in your row.
11. Students who wish to apply for an extension should approach their tutors.
12. The application form must be submitted before the end of term.
13. The module develops our understanding of the theory behind advertising campaign.
14. The most modern agricultural equipment is now extremely expensive.
15. The politics combine both the legislative and the political authorities.
16. The seminar will now take place once a week on Tuesday.
17. To measure distance could take as much as three weeks.
18. Vessels carry blood from the heart to other parts of the body.
19. Visual aids can make presentations clear and more interesting.
20. Would you please put the materials on the table?
标题为：The United Arab Emirates’ Flag and Jordan’s Flag
This is a kind of object that you’re probably all familiar with when you had the term robot, but I’m gonna show you the very, very first robots. These were the very first robots. They were characters in a play in the 1920s called Rossum’s Universal Robots and they, the play was written by Czech writer called Karel Capek. And basically, these robots, you know, people tend to think of robots as kind of cute cuddly toys or, you know, Hollywood depictions kind of devoid of politics. But the first robots were actually created and imagined in a time of absolute political turmoil. You just had the First World War, you know, it finished had a devastating impact across Europe and so people will kind and people are kind of reflecting on what does it mean to be human, what makes us human, those kinds of question. And this kind of context is what inspired Capek to kind of write this play. And interestingly, these robots being human, they are actually in the play assembled on a production line, a bit like the Ford manufacturing production line. So even though they are human, they are assembled and these robots are designed to labor, and that is their primary purpose in society.
2. Large Hadron Collider
Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest particle accelerator lies in a tunnel. The LHC is a ring roughly 28km around that accelerates protons almost to the speed of light before colliding them head-on. Protons are particles found in the atomic nucleus, roughly one thousand-million-millionth of a meter in size. The LHC starts with a bottle of hydrogen gas, which is sent through an electric field to strip away the electrons, leaving just the protons. Electric and magnetic fields are the key to a particle accelerator.
3. Government Blogging
We normally see blogging as a two-way interaction, in which the blogger/author creates the content and the readers interact or challenge the author.
But the case will be much difficult when it comes to government, such as the White House.
Because people will become coarser and ride online,especially in the comment area.
Hence the governor blog may go wild and chaotic.
4. Water on Mars
In the past five years, the temperature of Mars has increased.
The research conducted on the Mars indicates the prior existence of liquid water.
The evidence is that researchers found several elements which are essential to form water, such as calcium carbonate, salt, mineral, and perchlorate.
Consequently, we can speculate that there used to be water existed on Mars as liquid form and Mars may be a hospitable planet long time ago.
6. Low Birth Rate
7. Loggerhead Sea Turtles
8. Children’s obesity
Summarise Written Text（部分）:
1. Tiny frog found in Mexico
A miner in the state of Chiapas found a tiny tree frog that has been preserved in amber for 25 million years, a researcher said. If authenticated, the preserved frog would be the first of its kind found in Mexico, according to David Grimaldi, a biologist and curator at the American Museum of Natural History, who was not involved in the find.
The chunk of amber containing the frog, less than half an inch long, was uncovered by a miner in Mexicos southern Chiapas state in 2005 and was bought by a private collector, who loaned it to scientists for study. A few other preserved frogs have been found in chunks of amber a stone formed by ancient tree sap mostly in the Dominican Republic. Like those, the frog found in Chiapas appears to be of the genus Craugastor, whose descendants still inhabit the region, said biologist Gerardo Carbot of the Chiapas Natural History and Ecology Institute. Carbot announced the discovery this week.
The scientist said the frog lived about 25 million years ago, based on the geological strata where the amber was found. Carbot would like to extract a sample from the frogs remains in hopes of finding DNA that could identify the particular species, but doubts the owner would let him drill into the stone.
A miner in the state of Chiapas found a tiny tree frog has been preserved in amber for 25 million years, which would be the first of its kind found in Mexico, and it was bought by a private collector, and Carbot would like to extract a sample from the frogs remains in hopes of finding DNA that could identify the particular species, but doubts the owner would let him drill into the stone. (74 words)
2. Tree rings (dendrochronology 树木年代学)
Here’s how tree ring dating, known to scientists as dendrochronology works. If you cut a tree down today, it’s straightforward to count the rings inwards, starting from the tree’s outside (corresponding to this year’s growth ring), and thereby to state that the 177th ring from the outermost one towards the centre was laid down in the year 2005 minus 177, or 1828. However, the widths of tree growth rings vary from year to year, depending on the rain or drought conditions in each year.
Hence the sequence of the rings in a tree cross-section is like a message in Morse code formerly used for sending telegraph messages; dot-dot-dash-dot-dash in the Morse code, wide-wide narrow-wide- narrow in the tree ring sequence. Actually the tree ring sequence is even more diagnostic and richer in information than the Morse code, because trees actually contain rings spanning many different width, rather than the Morse code choice between dot and dash.
Tree ring specialists (known as dendrochronologists) proceed by noting the sequence of wider and narrower rings in a tree cut down in a known recent year, and also noting the sequences in beams from trees cut down at various times in the past. They then match up and align the tree ring sequences with the same diagnostic wide/narrow patterns from different beams.
In that way, dendrochronologists have constructed tree ring records extending back for thousands of years in some parts of the world. Each record is valid for a geographic area whose extent depends on local weather patterns, because weather and hence tree growth patterns vary with location.
How tree ring dating is known as dendrochronology works, and the widths of tree growth rings vary from year to year, and the sequence of the rings is like a message in Morse code, and it is even more diagnostic and richer in information, and tree ring specialists proceed by noting the sequence of wider and narrower rings, and each record is valid for a geographic area whose extent depends on local weather patterns. (74 words)
3. Mini War
In such an environment, warfare is no longer purely directed against the military potential of adversarial states. It is rather directed at infiltrating all areas of their societies and to threaten their existences. The comparatively easy access to weapons of mass destruction, in particular relatively low-cost biological agents, is of key concern. Both governmental and nongovernmental actors prefer to use force in a way that can be characterized as unconventional or also as small wars. War waged according to conventions is an interstate phenomenon. The small war is the archetype of war, in which the protagonists acknowledge no rules and permanently try to violate what conventions do exist. The protagonists of the small war observe neither international standards nor arms control agreements. They make use of territories where they do not have to fear any sanctions because there is no functioning state to assume charge of such sanctions or because the state in question is too weak to impose such sanctions.
This type of war does not provide for any warning time. It challenges not only the external security of the nation states and international community, but also their internal safety.
Warfare is directed at infiltrating all areas of adversarial states’ societies and to threaten their existences, and the easy access to weapons of mass destruction is of key concern, and the small war is the archetype of war, and it is preferred by governmental and nongovernmental actors, and this type of war does not provide for any warning time, which challenges the external and internal security of the nation states and international community.
4. Overqualified workers
If your recruiting efforts attract job applicants with too much experience a near certainty in this weak labour market you should consider a response that runs counter to most hiring managers MO: Don't reject those applicants out of hand.
Instead, take a closer look. New research shows that overqualified workers tend to perform better than other employees, and they don't quit any sooner. Furthermore, a simple managerial tactic empowerment can mitigate any dissatisfaction they may feel.
The prejudice against too-good employees is pervasive. Companies tend to prefer an applicant who is a perfect fit over someone who brings more intelligence, education, or experience than needed. On the surface, this bias makes sense: Studies have consistently shown that employees who consider themselves overqualified exhibit higher levels of discontent. For example, over-qualification correlated well with job dissatisfaction in a 2008 study of 156 call-centre reps by Israeli researchers Saul Fine and Baruch Nevo. And unlike discrimination based on age or gender, declining to hire overqualified workers is perfectly legal.
But even before the economic downturn, a surplus of overqualified candidates was a global problem, particularly in developing economies, where rising education levels are giving workers more skills than are needed to supply the growing service sectors. If managers can get beyond the conventional wisdom, the growing pool of too-good applicants is a great opportunity. Berrin Erdogan and Talya N. Bauer of Portland State University in Oregon found that overqualified workers' feelings of dissatisfaction can be dissipated by giving them autonomy in decision making. At stores where employees didn't feel empowered, over-educated workers expressed greater dissatisfaction than their colleagues did and were more likely to state an intention to quit. But that difference vanished where self-reported autonomy was high.
You should consider a response that runs counter to most hiring managers MO, and the prejudice against too-good employees is pervasive, and employees who consider themselves overqualified exhibit higher levels of discontent, but a surplus of overqualified candidates was a global problem, and overqualified workers' feelings of dissatisfaction can be dissipated by giving them autonomy in decision making.
5. City of London
Who would have thought back in 1698, as they downed their espressos, that the little band of stockbrokers from Jonathan’s Coffee House in Change Alley EC3 would be the founder – members of what would become the world’s mighty money capital?
Progress was not entirely smooth. The South Sea Bubble burst in 1720 and the coffee house exchanges burned down in 1748. As late as Big Bang in 1986, when bowler hats were finally hung up, you wouldn’t have bet the farm on London surpassing New York, Frankfurt and Tokyo as Mammon’s international nexus. Yet the 325,000 souls who operate in the UK capital’s financial hub have now overtaken their New York rivals in size of the funds managed (including offshore business); they hold 70% of the global secondary bond market and the City dominates foreign exchange trading. And its institutions paid out￡9 billion in bonuses in December. The Square Mile has now spread both eastwards from EC3 to Canary Wharf and westwards into Mayfair, where many of the private-equity ‘locusts’ and their hedge-fund pals now hang out. For foreigners in finance, is the place to be. It has no Sarbanes-Oxley and no euro to hold it back, yet the fact that it still flies so high is against the odds. London is one of the most expensive cities in the world to live in, transport systems groan and there’s an ever-present threat of terrorist attack. But, for the time being, the deals just keep on getting bigger.
Little band of stockbrokers from Jonathan’s Coffee House became the world’s mighty money capital， and progress was not entirely smooth,and the South Sea Bubble burst in 1720 and the coffee house exchanges burned down in 1748, and they hold 70% of the global secondary bond market and the City dominates foreign exchange trading, and its institutions paid out￡9 billion in bonuses in December, and the deals just keep on getting bigger. (73words)
6. Wine Prohibition
In 1920, the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution created yet another setback for the American wine industry. The National Prohibition Act, also known as the Volstead Act, prohibited the manufacture, sale, transportation, importation, exportation, delivery, or possession of intoxicating liquors for beverage purpose. Prohibition, which continued for thirteen years, nearly destroyed what had become a thriving and national industry.
One of the loopholes in the Volstead Act allowed for the manufacture and sale of sacramental wine, medicinal wines for sale by pharmacists with a doctors’ prescription, and medicinal wine tonics (fortified wines) sold without prescription. Perhaps more important, Prohibition allowed anyone to produce up to two hundred gallons yearly of fruit juice or cider. The fruit juice, which was sometimes made into concentrate, was ideal for making wine. People would buy grape concentrate from California and have it shipped to the East Coast. The top of the container was stamped in big, bold letters: caution: do not add sugar or yeast or else fermentation will take place! Some of this yield found its way to bootleggers throughout America who did just that. But not for long, because the government stepped in and banned the sale of grape juice, preventing illegal wine production. Vineyards stopped being planted, and the American wine industry came to a halt.
The National Prohibition Act, also known as the Volstead Act, prohibited the manufacture, sale, transportation, importation, exportation, delivery, or possession of intoxicating liquors for beverage purpose, and there are loopholes, and government stepped in and banned the sale of grape juice, preventing illegal wine production, and American wine industry came to a halt.
1. Design of buildings have positive or negative impact on people’s life and work?
2. How widely of you think the problem spreads that people spend too much time on work than their personal life and experience time shortage? What problems will it cause?
3. Which one is better, Textbook library or new digital material in university. The role of a library in keeping books is obsolete. So universities should use digital media. What is your opinion? discuss advantages and disadvantages.
4. Whether experiential learning (learning by doing) can work well in formal education. Do you agree or disagree?
5. Experience is more effective and useful than books and formal education. What is your opinion?
6. Is it fair for universities to deduct students’ marks when their assignments are overdue?
7. Large shopping malls are replacing small shops. What is your opinion about this? Discuss with appropriate examples.
8. School children have less sports than their parents when they are young.
9. Lazy journalism happens when journalists don’t do their homework, and don’t check the accuracy of the information they find.
10. Promise about economic growth is illusion, 政府要abandon，政府这些经济上的承诺是否太过虚幻是否应该建议放弃做这样的不切实际的承诺? (Yes, argument)
Fill in The Blanks（部分）:
1. Impressionist painters
Impressionist painters were considered radical in their time because they broke many of the rules of picture-making set by earlier generations. They found many of their subjects in life around them rather than in history, which was then the accepted source of subject matter.
2. Dairy Farms
A few summers ago I visited two dairy farms, Huls Farm and Gardar Farm, which despite being located thousands of miles apart were still remarkably similar in their strengths and vulnerabilities. Both were by far the largest, most prosperous, most technologically advanced farms in their respective districts. In particular, each was cantered around a magnificent state-of-the-art barn for sheltering and milking cows. Those structures, both neatly divided into opposite-facing rows of cow stalls, dwarfed all other barns in the district. Both farms let their cows graze outdoors in lush pastures during the summer, produced their own hay to harvest in the late summer for feeding the cows through the winter, and increased(gained) their production of summer fodder and winter hay by irrigating their fields.
3. Great Barrier Reef
The ocean floor is home to many unique communities of plants and animals. Most of these marine ecosystems are near the water surface, such as the Great Barrier Reef, a 2,000km long coral formation off the northeaster coast of Australia. Coral reefs, like nearly all complex living communities, depend on solar energy for growth (photosynthesis). The sun’s energy, however, penetrates at most only about 300m below the surface of the water. The relatively shallow penetration of solar energy and the sinking of cold, sub-polar water combine to make most of the deep ocean floor a frigid environment with few life forms.
In 1977, scientists discovered hot springs at a depth of 2.5km, on the Galapagos Rift (spreading ridge) off the coast of Ecuador. This exciting discovery was not really a surprise. Since the early 1970s, scientists had predicted that hot springs (geothermal vents) should be found at the active spreading centres along the mid-oceanic ridges, where magma, at temperatures over 1,000°C, presumably was being erupted to form new oceanic crust. More exciting, because it was totally unexpected, was the discovery of abundant and unusual sea life – giant tube worms, huge clams, and mussels – that thrived around the hot springs.
4. Burger King
Drive down any highway, and you’ll see a proliferation of chain restaurants — most likely, if you travel long and far enough, you’ll see McDonald’s golden arches as well as signs for Burger King, Hardee’s, and Wendy’s, the “big four” of burgers. Despite its name, though, Burger King has fallen short of claiming the burger crown, unable to surpass market leader McDonalds’s No. 1 sales status. Always the bridesmaid and never the bride, Burger King remains No. 2.
Worse yet, Burger King has experienced a six-year 22 percent decline in customer traffic, with its overall quality rating dropping while ratings for the other three contenders have increased. The decline has been attributed to inconsistent product quality and poor customer service. Although the chain tends to throw advertising dollars at the problem, an understanding of Integrated Marketing Communication theory would suggest that internal management problems (nineteen CEOs in fifty years) need to be rectified before a unified, long-term strategy can be put in place.
The importance of consistency in brand image and messages, at all levels of communication, has become a basic tenet of IMC theory and practice. The person who takes the customer’s order must communicate the same message as Burger King’s famous tagline, “Have it your way,” or the customer will just buss up the highway to a chain restaurant that seems more consistent and, therefore, more reliable.
5. The Texas Cosmology Centre
A new interdisciplinary centre for the study of the frontiers of the universe, from the tiniest subatomic particle to the largest chain of galaxies, has been formed at The University of Texas at Austin. The Texas Cosmology Centre will be a way for the university's departments of Astronomy and Physics to collaborate on research that concerns them both.
“This centre will bring the two departments together in an area where they overlap--in the physics of the very early universe,” said Dr. Neal Evans, Astronomy Department chair. Astronomical observations have revealed the presence of dark matter and dark energy, discoveries that challenge our knowledge of fundamental physics. And today's leading theories in physics involve energies so high that no Earth-bound particle accelerator can test them. They need the universe as their laboratory.
Dr. Steven Weinberg, Nobel laureate and professor of physics at the university, called the Centre’s advent “a very exciting development” for that department.
6. Egg-eating Snakes
Egg-eating snakes are a small group of snakes whose diet consists only of eggs. Some eat only small eggs, which they have to swallow whole, as the snake has no teeth. Instead, some other snakes eat bigger eggs, but it requires special treatment. These snakes have spines that stick out from the backbone. The spines crack the egg open as it passes through the throat.
7. Thea Proctor
Thea Proctor was just sixteen when her entry at the Bowral Art Competition caught the eye of the judge, Arther Streeton. It was the first of many associations with art world recruits. The next year saw her at the Julian Ashton Art School in the illustrious company of Elioth Gruner, Sydney Long and George Lambert, for whom she often posed and who remained her great friend until his death in 1930. Lambert's paintings and sketches of Proctor emphasize the elegance of her dress. A keen interest in fashion was just one aspect of her fascination with design, and she saw herself as an early style guru on a quest to rid Australian art of "it's lack of imagination and inventive design." Skilled in watercolors and drawings, Proctor did not limit herself to paper, canvases or her popular magazine illustrations; she designed theatre sets and a restaurant interior and wrote on a range of subjects from flower arranging to the colors of cars. It made for a busy and varied life but, as she said, she was not the sort of person "who could sit at home and knit socks.
1. Ne Tam (Monash student)
Mechanical engineering student Ne Tam is spending the first semester of this year studying at the University of California, Berkeley as part of the Monash Abroad program.
Ne, an international student from Shanghai, China, began her Monash journey at Monash Collage in October 2006.
There she completed a diploma that enabled her to enter Monash University as a second-year student.
Now in her third year of study, the Monash Abroad program will see her complete four units of study in the US before returning to Australia in May 2009.
2. Early Rails
Early rails were used on horse drawn wagon way, originally with wooden rails, but from the 1760s using strap-iron rails, which consisted of thin strips of cast iron fixed onto wooden rails.
These rails were too fragile to carry heavy loads, but because the initial construction cost was less, this method was sometimes used to quickly build an inexpensive rail line.
However, the long-term expense involved in frequent maintenance outweighed any savings.
These were superseded by cast iron rails that were flanged and with the wagon wheels flat.
An early proponent of this design was Benjamin Outram. His partner William Jessop preferred the use of "edge rails" in 1789 where the wheels were flanged and, over time, it was realised that this combination worked better.
The first steel rails were made in 1857 by Robert Forester Mushet, who laid them at Derby station in England. Steel is a much stronger material, which steadily replaced iron for use on railway rail and allowed much longer lengths of rails to be rolled.
3. Stem cells
Embryonic stem cells are valued by scientists because the cells‘ descendant can turn into any other sort of body cell.
These stem cells have been found in tissues such as the brain, bone marrow, blood, blood vessels, skeletal muscles, skin, and the liver.
They might thus be used as treatments for diseases that require the replacement of a particular, lost cell type.
Some example cited for a possible treatment using these cells are diabetes, motor neuron disease and Parkinson‘s disease.
4. Fruit and Vegetable Intake
Fruit and vegetable intake is important for the prevention of future chronic disease. So it's important to know whether intakes of teens are approaching national objectives for fruit and vegetable consumption.
Larson and colleagues from the University of Minnesota undertook the study to examine whether or not teens in the state were increasing their intake of fruits and vegetables.
The study gathered information about fruit and vegetable intake among 944 boys and 1.161 girls in 1999 and again in 2004.
Teens in middle adolescence are eating fewer fruits and vegetables than in 1999. Larson and colleagues found.
This is giving us the message that we need new and enhanced efforts to increase fruit and vegetable intake that we haven't been doing in the past.
Historical records, coins, and other date-bearing objects can help - if they exist. But even prehistoric sites contain records - written in nature's hand.
The series of strata in an archaeological dig enables an excavator to date recovered objects relatively, if not absolutely.
However, when archaeologists want to know the absolute date of a site, they can often go beyond simple stratigraphy.
For example, tree rings, Dendrochronology (literally, ―tree time‖) dates wooden artefacts by matching their ring patterns to known records, which, in some areas of the world, span several thousand years.
6. Sustainable Development
Whatever happened to the idea of progress and a better future? I still believe both.
The Brundtland Report, our Common Future (1987) defines sustainable development as” development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Implicit in this definition is the idea that the old pattern of development could not be sustained. Is this true?
Development in the past was driven by growth and innovation. It led to new technologies and huge improvements in living standards.
When Vijay Govindarajan and Christian Sarkar wrote a blog entry on Harvard Business Review in August 2010 mooting the idea of a “$300-house for they were merely expressing a suggestion.”
Of course, the idea we present here is an experiment,” wrote Prof Govindarajan, a professor of international business at the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth and Mr Sarkar, a marketing consultant who works on environmental issues an almost apologetic disclaimer for having such a “far-out” idea.
Who could create a house for $300 and if it was possible, why hadn’t it been done before?
Nonetheless, they closed their blog with a challenge: “We ask chief executives, governments, NGOs, foundations: Are there any takers?”
Summarise Spoken Text (部分):
1. Global warming/climate change
Climate change has become a severe problem which caused by increased carbon dioxide and other discharge of the greenhouse emissions.
The increase of population, limited resources and poverty will accelerate environmental problem
People cannot take the risks of ignoring scientists’ prediction.
Commercial organisations and governments should take the responsibility and actions.
2. Australian housing
Economic growth of the society
Affordable mortgage rates
Increased immigration leads to higher number of housing required while suppliers remain unchanged.
Increased purchasing power of buyers.
3. Environmental law
British government launched the environmental law long before at the time of Charles the Second in order to control the impact of human activities on environment.
However, the enforcement of environmental law was not well-established.
Later, during the time of Industrial Revolution, British government reinforced the environment law to punish those companies who applied the Adam Smith theory to increase their profitability.
Managers were unsatisfied, because companies had to pay more money to ensure the health of their employees under the environmental law, which made companies less competitive in the market.
4. Structure of DNA
The structure of DNA allows us to analyze effects of genes.
Genes cannot only determine our physical features but also psychological and physical behaviors.
By integrating information form neuroscience, we can have a deep knowledge about genes.
5. Citizenship Curriculum
Last month I published alongside my annual report a subject report on the development of citizenship in schools. The report celebrates the success of some schools in implementing the citizenship curriculum. It praises those schools where there have been substantial developments in the subject, and which now go a long way towards fulfilling national curriculum requirements. In the report, we are critical of schools which have not taken citizenship seriously, either through reluctance or lack of capacity to make appropriate provision in the curriculum.
Citizenship is marginalized in the curriculum in one-fifth of schools. It is less well established in the curriculum than other subjects, and less well taught and some critics have seized on this as a reason for wanting to step back from supporting it.Yet, the progress made to date by the more committed schools suggests that the reasons for introducing citizenship are both worthwhile and can be fulfilled, given the time and resources. Indeed, those reasons are given added weight by national and global events of the past few months. While not claiming too much, citizenship can address core skills, attitudes, and values that young people need to consider as they come to terms with a changing world.
The main problems standing in the way of implementation of citizenship continue to be: the lack of commitment on the part of many school leaders; an insufficient amount of initial and in-service training provision to ensure that every school can call upon teachers with subject expertise; and its uncertain place in the curriculum.
6. A female writer
She had been writing non-fiction for years, but she always desired to be a novelist.
She has never regretted, because she believed it was the right thing for her to do.
She was encouraged by a famous pioneer.
Finally, she started writing novel in 1990, and in 1992, the first chapter named ‘the Secret Life of Bees’ of her first novel was finished.
Relationship between fault planes and earth quakes.
The focus of the earthquake, ‘hypocentre’ is located beneath the crust of earth’s interior.
Through looking at the fault plane, we are able to locate and determine the position of the epicentre which is vertically above the focus on the earth’s surface.
Faults are fractures on the earth’s crust.
The vertical fault movements through the hypocentre generate seismic waves and earthquakes occur.
8. Indian peasants’ debts
Because of globalisation and patent, Indian peasants have to buy seeds from those companies that monopolise the market.
Peasants have to keep on using pesticide produced from these companies for the growth of the corps.
The agriculture products’ price is continuously decreasing, while the price of seeds and pesticide has increased by 4000 percent in the past 5 years.
Thus peasants have to borrow money from the companies, which eventually makes them unable to feed themselves and some of them more under pressure.